Table of Contents
ISRN Signal Processing
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 496701, 22 pages
Review Article

An Overview on Image Forensics

Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, University of Florence, Via S. Marta 3, 50139 Firenze, Italy

Received 6 November 2012; Accepted 26 November 2012

Academic Editors: L. Fan and S. Kwong

Copyright © 2013 Alessandro Piva. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of this survey is to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the area of image forensics. These techniques have been designed to identify the source of a digital image or to determine whether the content is authentic or modified, without the knowledge of any prior information about the image under analysis (and thus are defined as passive). All these tools work by detecting the presence, the absence, or the incongruence of some traces intrinsically tied to the digital image by the acquisition device and by any other operation after its creation. The paper has been organized by classifying the tools according to the position in the history of the digital image in which the relative footprint is left: acquisition-based methods, coding-based methods, and editing-based schemes.