Table of Contents
ISRN Polymer Science
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 509185, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/509185
Review Article

Geopolymer Binders: A Need for Future Concrete Construction

Structural Engineering Division, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamilnadu, India

Received 30 April 2013; Accepted 6 June 2013

Academic Editors: C. Bernal and G. Gentile

Copyright © 2013 K. Srinivasan and A. Sivakumar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Davidovits, “Geopolymers and geopolymeric materials,” in Journal of Thermal Analysis, vol. 35, pp. 429–441, 1989.
  2. D. Hardjito and B. V. Rangan, “Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete Develoment and properties of low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer concret,” Research Report GC 1, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  3. T. W. Cheng and J. P. Chiu, “Fire-resistant geopolymer produce by granulated blast furnace slag,” Minerals Engineering, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 205–210, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Palomo, M. W. Grutzeck, and M. T. Blanco, “Alkali-activated fly ashes: a cement for the future,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1323–1329, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. G. S. Van Jaarsveld, J. S. J. Van Deventer, and G. C. Lukey, “The characterisation of source materials in fly ash-based geopolymers,” Materials Letters, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 1272–1280, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. C. Goretta, N. Chen, F. Gutierrez-Mora, J. L. Routbort, G. C. Lukey, and J. S. J. van Deventer, “Solid-particle erosion of a geopolymer containing fly ash and blast-furnace slag,” Wear, vol. 256, no. 7-8, pp. 714–719, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. Bakharev, “Resistance of geopolymer materials to acid attack,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 658–670, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Fernández-Jiménez, A. Palomo, and M. Criado, “Microstructure development of alkali-activated fly ash cement: a descriptive model,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1204–1209, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Duxson, J. L. Provis, G. C. Lukey, S. W. Mallicoat, W. M. Kriven, and J. S. J. Van Deventer, “Understanding the relationship between geopolymer composition, microstructure and mechanical properties,” Colloids and Surfaces A, vol. 269, no. 1–3, pp. 47–58, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Bakharev, “Thermal behaviour of geopolymers prepared using class F fly ash and elevated temperature curing,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1134–1147, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. F. Škvára, l. Kopecký, J. N. Nìmeèek, and Z. Bittnar, “Microstructure of geopolymer Materials based on fly ash,” Ceramics-Silikáty, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 208–215, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  12. P. Chindaprasirt, T. Chareerat, and V. Sirivivatnanon, “Workability and strength of coarse high calcium fly ash geopolymer,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 224–229, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. L. Y. Kong, J. G. Sanjayan, and K. Sagoe-Crentsil, “Comparative performance of geopolymers made with metakaolin and fly ash after exposure to elevated temperatures,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1583–1589, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Temuujin, A. van Riessen, and R. Williams, “Influence of calcium compounds on the mechanical properties of fly ash geopolymer pastes,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 167, no. 1–3, pp. 82–88, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. L. Y. Kong and J. G. Sanjayan, “Damage behavior of geopolymer composites exposed to elevated temperatures,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 986–991, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. I. Diaz, E. N. Allouche, and S. Eklund, “Factors affecting the suitability of fly ash as source material for geopolymers,” Fuel, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 992–996, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. L. Y. Kong and J. G. Sanjayan, “Effect of elevated temperatures on geopolymer paste, mortar and concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 334–339, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Kumar, R. Kumar, and S. P. Mehrotra, “Influence of granulated blast furnace slag on the reaction, structure and properties of fly ash based geopolymer,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 607–615, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Wongpa, K. Kiattikomol, C. Jaturapitakkul, and P. Chindaprasirt, “Compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and water permeability of inorganic polymer concrete,” Materials and Design, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 4748–4754, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. Jämstorp, J. Forsgren, S. Bredenberg, H. Engqvist, and M. Strømme, “Mechanically strong geopolymers offer new possibilities in treatment of chronic pain,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 370–377, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Elimbi, H. K. Tchakoute, and D. Njopwouo, “Effects of calcination temperature of kaolinite clays on the properties of geopolymer cements,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 2805–2812, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Natali, S. Manzi, and M. C. Bignozzi, “Novel fiber-reinforced composite materials based on sustainable geopolymer matrix,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Green Buildings and Sustainable Cities (GBSC '11), pp. 1124–1131, September 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Nazari, A. Bagheri, and S. Riahi, “Properties of geopolymer with seeded fly ash and rice husk bark ash,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 528, no. 24, pp. 7395–7401, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. C. McLellan, R. P. Williams, J. Lay, A. Van Riessen, and G. D. Corder, “Costs and carbon emissions for geopolymer pastes in comparison to ordinary portland cement,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 19, no. 9-10, pp. 1080–1090, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. Somna, C. Jaturapitakkul, P. Kajitvichyanukul, and P. Chindaprasirt, “NaOH-activated ground fly ash geopolymer cured at ambient temperature,” Fuel, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 2118–2124, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Davidovits and M. Davidovics, “Geopolymer room temperature ceramic matrix for composites,” Concrete International, pp. 30–40, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  27. D. C. Comrie, J. H. Paterson, and D. J. Ritchey, “Geopolymer technologies in toxic waste management,” in Proceedings of the 1st European Conference on Soft Mineralogy (Geopolymer '88), Compiegne, France, 1988.
  28. X. Guo, H. Shi, and W. A. Dick, “Compressive strength and microstructural characteristics of class C fly ash geopolymer,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 142–147, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. T. Gourley, “Geopolymers, opportunities for environmentally friendly construction material,” in Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibition on Adaptive Materials for a Modern Society (Materials '03), Sydney, Australia, 2003.
  30. A. Fernández-Jiménez and A. Palomo, “Characterisation of fly ashes: potential reactivity as alkaline cements,” Fuel, vol. 82, no. 18, pp. 2259–2265, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Davidovits, “Chemistry of Geopolymeric Systems, Terminology,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference, Géopolymère, pp. 9–39, Saint-Quentin, France, 1999.
  32. V. F. F. Barbosa, K. J. D. MacKenzie, and C. Thaumaturgo, “Synthesis and characterisation of materials based on inorganic polymers of alumina and silica: sodium polysialate polymers,” International Journal of Inorganic Materials, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 309–317, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. Xu and J. S. J. Van Deventer, “The geopolymerisation of alumino-silicate minerals,” International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 247–266, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. C. Swanepoel and C. A. Strydom, “Utilisation of fly ash in a geopolymeric material,” Applied Geochemistry, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1143–1148, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. Xu and J. S. J. Van Deventer, “Geopolymerisation of multiple minerals,” Minerals Engineering, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1131–1139, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Sivakumar and M. Santhanam, “Evaluation of drying shrinkage and residual stresses of a high strength concrete using restrained ring test,” Indian Concrete Journal, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 49–57, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus