International Scholarly Research Notices / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Supplements and Foods with Potential Reduction of Blood Pressure in Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Subjects: A Systematic Review

Table 1

Characteristics of the subjects, supplementation protocol, and the effects of interventions on blood pressure.

StudiesSampleSupplementsQuantityAdministration
(intake/day)
Time of
supplementation
Methods measurement Results (mmHg)

Vitamins and minerals

Berry et al. [11]23 M/25 W
Hypertensives
45 ± 10 years
Potassium citrate40 mmol2 dose of 20 mmol/2x6 weeksAnalysis of
radial pulse wave
SBP—(−1.5 mmHg)
DBP—(−0.3 mmHg)
Sugden et al. [12]10 M/7 W
Diabetics
64 ± 10 years
Vitamin D100 00 IU1x8 weeksFinometer *SBP—145 ± 9 versus 137 ± 12
DBP—82 ± 11 versus 80 ± 9
Major et al. [13]30 W/Obese
41 ± 6 years
Vitamin D
Calcium
400 mg 
1200 mg
2 dose of 200 + 600 mg
2x
15 weeksSphygSBP—112 ± 11 versus 109 ± 10
DBP—75 ± 9 versus 72 ± 7
Ward et al. [14]13 M/5 W
Diabetics
64 ± 7 years
Vitamin E500 mg2 dose of 250 mg/2x6 weeksABPM *SBP—130 ± 13 versus 123 ± 7
*DBP—76 ± 6 versus 71 ± 5
Plantinga et al. [15]30 M/
Hypertensives
50 ± 12 years
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
1000 mg
400 UI
1000 mg + 400 UI/1x8 weeksABPMSBP—134 ± 10 versus 134 ± 10
DBP—87 ± 7 versus 86 ± 7
Farvid et al. [16]9 M/8 W Diabetics
50 ± 9 years
Magnesium
Zinc
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
200 mg
30 mg
200 mg
150 mg
2 dose of
 Mg/Zn (100 + 15 mg) +
Vit C/E
(100 + 75 mg)
2x
12 weeksSphyg *SBP—130 ± 19 versus 122 ± 16
*DBP—83 ± 11 versus 77 ± 9
Farvid et al. [16]7 M/9 W Diabetics
51 ± 7 years
Magnesium
Zinc
200 mg
30 mg
2 dose of
 Mg/Zn (100 + 15 mg)
2x
12 weeksSphygSBP—122 ± 15 versus 120 ± 10
DBP—78 ± 12 versus 78 ± 10
Farvid et al. [16]8 M/10 W Diabetics
49 ± 9 years
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
200 mg
150 mg
2 dose of
Vit C/E
(100 + 75 mg)
2x
12 weeksSphygSBP—125 ± 15 versus 122 ± 12
DBP—81 ± 9
versus 79 ± 12
Ward et al. [17]12 M/7 W Hypertensives
59 ± 5 years
Vitamin C500 mg2 dose of 250 mg/
2x
6 weeksABPM *SBP—134 ± 10 versus 130 ± 8
DBP—81 ± 8 versus 86 ± 7
Ward et al. [17]10 M/6 W Hypertensives
62 ± 7 years
Vitamin C
Polyphenols
(grape seed)
500 mg
1000 mg
2 dose of 250 + 500 mg
2x
6 weeksABPM *SBP—139 ± 11 versus 134 ± 8
*DBP —80 ± 11 versus 76 ± 6
Morán; Romero [18]NR
32 Diabetics
59.7 ± 8 years
Magnesium
chloride
2500 mg1x16 weeksNRSBP—148 ± 32 versus 140 ± 28
DBP—86 ± 17 versus 83 ± 16
Alarcón et al. [19]15 M/60 W Hypertensives
49 ± 5, years
Copper5 mg1x8 weeksSphyg *SBP—158 ± 17 versus 119 ± 3
*DBP—106 ± 14 versus 80 ± 1
Mullan et al. [20]12 M/3 W Diabetics
61 ± 6 years
Vitamin C500 mg1x4 weeksSphyg *SBP—130 ± 12 versus 120 ± 12
*DBP—85 ± 5 versus 80 ± 6
Palumbo et al. [21]NR/142
Hypertensives
Idade ≥ 50 years
Vitamin E300 mg1x12 weeksSphyg and ABPMSBP—147 ± 6 versus 139 ± 17
DBP—88 ± 9 versus 85 ± 8
Gazis et al. [22]36 M/12 W
Diabetics
57 ± 11 years
Vitamin E1600 UI1x8 weeksSphygSBP—150 ± 15 versus 146 ± 16
DBP—79 ± 9 versus 79 ± 7
Kawano et al. [23]35 M/25 W
Hypertensives
58 ± 1 years
Calcium1000 mg2 dose of 500 mg/2x8 weeksSphyg SBP—(−2.0 ± 1.2 mmHg)  
DBP—(−1.1 ± 0.7 mmHg)
De Valk et al. [24]16 M/9 W
Diabetics
62 ± 7 years
Magnesium15 mmol1x12 weeksNR SBP—159 ± 20 versus 147 ± 22
DBP—83 ± 8 versus 77 ± 8
Siani et al. [25]18 M/Hypertensives
45 ± 2 years
Potassium24 mmol3 dose of 8 mmol/3x15 weeksSphyg *SBP—144 ± 22 versus 132 ± 3
*DBP—92 ± 1 versus 82 ± 2

Antioxidants components

Egert et al. [26]42 M/51 W
Obeses
43 ± 10 years
Quercetin150 mg3 dose of 50 mg/3x6 weeksSphyg *SBP—127 ± 14 versus 124 ± 14
DBP—81 ± 9 versus 82 ± 8
Ward et al. [27]10 M/6 W
Hypertensives
62.3 ± 7.1 years
Grape seed 500  mg2 dose of 250 mg/2x6 weeksABPM *SBP—134 ± 11 versus 132 ± 9
*DBP—80 ± 10 versus 73 ± 8
Aviram; Fuhrman [28]12 M
Hypercholesterolemic
52 ± 1 years
Licorice Root Extract100 mg1x 4 weeksSphyg *SBP—10%
DBP—10%
Hodgson et al. [29]61 M/19 W
Diabetics
52.3 ± 1.4 years
Coenzyme Q10200 mg4 dose of 50 mg/2x12 weeksDINAMAP *SBP—127 ± 4 versus 123 ± 3
*DBP—76 ± 2 versus 71 ± 2
Burke et al. [30]46 M/37 W
Diabetics
69 ± 6 years
Coenzyme Q10120 mg2 dose of 60 mg/2x12 weeksSphyg *SBP—165 ± 5 versus 147 ± 8
DBP—81 ± 1 versus 78 ± 3

Aminoacids and proteins

Lee et al. [31]8 M/10 W
Diabetics
52.1 ± 2.3 years
Spirulina8 g40 dose of 0.2 g
2x
12 weeksSphygSBP—131 ± 4 versus 129 ± 3
DBP—84 ± 2 versus 80 ± 2
Torres-Duran et al. [32]16 M/20 W
Hypercholesterolemic/
Hypertensives
44.3 ± 9.6 years
Spirulina4.5 g3 dose of 0.5 g
3x
6 weeksSphygSBP—120 ± 9 versus 109 ± 9
DBP—85 ± 9 versus 79 ± 8
West et al. [33]18M
Hypercholesterolemic
45 ± 1.9 years
L-arginine12 g4 doses of 3 g
4x
3 weeksABPM *SBP—134 ± 3 versus 114 ± 4
*DBP—87 ± 2 versus 71 ± 2

Foods in nature

Duda et al. [34]38 M/32 W
Hypertensives
52.0 ± 8.3 years
Garlic1620 mg6 doses of 270 mg 2x4 weeksSphyg *SBP—142 ± 2 versus 139 ± 2
DBP—87 ± 11 versus 84 ± 10
Mizushima et al. [35]45 M/
Hypertensives
44 ± 10 years
Milk160 g1x4 weeksSphyg *SBP—148 ± 10 versus 143 ± 8
DBP—96 ± 10 versus 94 ± 6
Park et al. [36]40 M
Hypertensives
46 ± 2 years
Grape juice5.5 mL por
Kg corporal
2x8 weeksSphyg * SBP—146 ± 3 versus 138 ± 4
* DBP—94 ± 3 versus 88 ± 3
Burke et al. [37]36 Hypertensives
de 50 years
Soy and psyllium25% VET + 12 g
fibra 25%
VET + 12 g
66 g/Maltodextrin,
soy protein/66 g and
psyllium/12 1x
8 weeksABPMSBP—135 (120; 150) versus 126.6 (114; 139.2)
DBP—74.1 (66.7; 81.4) versus 71.8 (65; 78.5)

Commercial supplements

Vuksan et al. [38]11 M/9 W
Diabetics
64 ± 8 years
Grain Salba37 g1x12 weeksSphyg *SBP—129 ± 17 versus 123 ± 16
DBP—81 ± 9 versus 78 ± 8
Paschos et al. [39]59 M/
Hypercholesterolemic
52.0 ± 1.0 years
Alpha-linolenic8000 mg1x12 weeksSphygSBP—120 versus 110
DBP—80 versus 72
Wang et al. [40] 17 M/6 W
Obeses/Hypertensives
41.7 ± 3.4
Fish oil3000 mg3 doses of 1000 mg 1x8 weeksSphyg *SBP—129 ± 7 versus 124 ± 12
DBP—89.6 ± 7 versus 88 ± 7
Iwata et al. [41]20 M/20 W
Obeses
43 ± 10
Linoleic Acid5.4 g1x12 weeksSphyg automaticSBP—124 ± 11 versus 120 ± 12
DBP—73 ± 2 versus 72 ± 9
Iwata et al. [41] 20 M/20 W
Obeses
40 ± 8
Linoleic Acid10.8 g1x12 weeksSphyg automaticSBP—127 ± 10 versus 123 ± 12
DBP—76 ± 7 versus 72 ± 8
Svensson et al. [42]39 M/19 W
Kidney Disease 60 ± 11 years
Fatty acids polyunsaturated n-32.4 g1x8 weeksABPMSBP—135 ± 14 versus 135 ± 17
DBP—75 ± 9 versus 76 ± 8
Jenkins et al. [43]15 M/12 W
Hypercholesterolemic,
64 ± 9 years
Almonds73 g/d1x4 weeksNRSBP—120 ± 2 versus 120 ± 3
DBP—75 ± 2 versus 76 ± 2
Jenkins et al. [43]15 M/12 H
Hypercholesterolemic,
64 ± 9 years
Half-almonds37 g/d1x4 weeksNRSBP—121 ± 3 versus 121 ± 2
DBP—75 ± 2 versus 76 ± 2
Burke et al. [37]36 M/Hypertensive
middle-aged
Psyllium25% VET + 12 g
fibra 25%
VET + 12 g
66 g/Malto, 66 g/soy
protein + 12 g
psyllium 1x
8 weeksABPMSBP—131.6 (122.6; 141.0) versus 134.1 (123.7; 144.5)
DBP—78.1 (69.4; 86.9) versus 78.7 (69.9; 87.6)
Agerholm-Larsen et al. [44]20 M/50 W
Obeses 18 to55 years
StLa (Streptococcus thermophilus + Lactobacillus acidophilus)450 mL of milk
CAUSIDO
1x8 weeksSphyg *SBP—−4.4 ± 1.8
*DBP—−3.4 ± 1.5
Agerholm-Larsen et al. [44]20 M/50 W
Obeses 18 to55 years
StLr (Streptococcus thermophilus + Lactobacillus rhamnosus)450 mL
of milk CAUSIDO
1x8 weeksSphyg automaticSBP—2.6 ± 3.1
DBP—0.8 ± 2.0
Agerholm-Larsen et al. [44]20 M/50 W
Obeses 18 to55 years
G (Enterococcus faecium + Streptococcus thermophilus)450 mL
of milk
CAUSIDO
1x8 weeksSphyg automatic SBP—(−8.0 ± 2.3 mmHg)  
DBP—(−4.0 ± 2.4 mmHg)

Statistically significant, M: men, W: women, g: grams, mL: milliliter, SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure, Sphyg: sphygmomanometer, ABPM: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, NR: not reported, finometer: finger plethysmograph, DINAMAP: automatic sphygmomanometer.