Table of Contents
ISRN Infectious Diseases
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 636103, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/636103
Research Article

Current Status of Schistosoma mansoni Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Students in Gorgora Town, Northwest Ethiopia

1Pathfinder International, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
3Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

Received 13 September 2012; Accepted 8 October 2012

Academic Editors: H. Hisaeda and M. Vaillant

Copyright © 2013 Tarko Essa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Cheesbrough, Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries, vol. 1, Cambridge University, London, UK, 2nd edition, 2001.
  2. World Health Organization, Basic Laboratory Methods in Medical Parasitology, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1991.
  3. S. Tedla and L. Jemaneh, “Schistosomiasis and its distribution in Ethiopia and Eritrea,” in Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia and Eritrea, H. Birrie, S. Tedela, and L. Jemaneh, Eds., pp. 1–18, Institute of Pathobiology Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2nd edition, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  4. WHO Expert Committee, “Prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis,” World Health Organization Technical Report Series, vol. 912, pp. 1–6, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  5. T. Harrison, “Schistomiasis other trematode infections,” in Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, A. Adel and F. Mohamed, Eds., pp. 1266–1271, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 16th edition, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  6. L. R. Brunet, D. W. Dunne, and E. J. Pearce, “Cytokine interaction and immune responses during schistosoma mansoni Infection,” Parasitology Today, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 422–427, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. D. H. Molyneux, “"Neglected" diseases but unrecognised successes—challenges and opportunities for infectious disease control,” The Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9431, pp. 380–383, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. J. Hotez, D. H. Molyneux, A. Fenwick, E. Ottesen, S. E. Sachs, and J. D. Sachs, “Incorporating a rapid -impact package for neglected tropical disease with programs for HIV /AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 4, Article ID e277, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  9. A. Ali, B. Erko, T. Woldemichael, and H. Kloos, “Schistosomiasis,” in Epidemiology and Ecology of Health and Diseases in Ethiopia, Y. Berhane, D. Hailemariam, and H. Kloos, Eds., vol. 1, pp. 660–673, Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. Legese and B. Erko, “Prevalence of intestinal parasites among School children in a rural area close to the Southeast of Lake Langano, Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 18, pp. 116–120, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  11. T. Assefa, T. Woldemicael, and A. Dejene, “Intestinal parasitism among students in three localites in South Wello, Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 12, pp. 231–235, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  12. M. Tiruneh, M. Fentahun, A. Kassu, G. Tiruneh, L. V. Lieshout, and A. M. Polderman, “Schistosomiasis mansoni in school at tenders and non-at tenders in Northwest Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 15, pp. 117–123, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. Degnew, “Status of S. mansoni infection at Gorgora, Northwest Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 13, pp. 15–20, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  14. G. Degu, G. Mengistu, and J. Jones, “Praziquantel efficacy against Schistosomiasis mansoni in schoolchildren in north-west Ethiopia,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 444–445, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. Boelee and H. Madsen, “Irrigation and schistosomiasis in Africa: ecological aspects,” in Research Report 99, vol. 8, p. 39, International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  16. T. Girum, “The prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections and associated risk factors among school children in Babile town, Eastern Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 19, pp. 140–147, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  17. L. Jemaneh and C. Lengeler, “The use of morbidity questionnaires to identify communities with high prevalence of geohelminth infections in Gondar region, Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Medical Journal, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 213–228, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. Wodemichael, T. Endeshaw, T. Shibre, T. Gebre, M. Haddis, and D. Tilahun, “Intestinal parasitic infections in western Abaya with special reference to Shistosoma mansoni,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 13, pp. 25–26, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Booth, B. J. Vennervald, L. C. Kenty et al., “Micro-geographical variation in exposure to Schistosoma mansoni and malaria, and exacerbation of splenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 4, article 13, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. Erko and S. Tedla, “Intestinal helminth infections at Zeghie town, Ethiopia, with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 7, pp. 21–26, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  21. M. Endris, W. Lemma, Y. Belyhun et al., “Prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among students of Atse Fasil General Elementary School Azezo, Northwest Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 25–33, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  22. L. Jemaneh, “Schistosomiasis mansoni and geo-helminthiasis in school children in the Dembia plains, Northwest Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 12, pp. 237–244, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  23. F. Abebe, S. Tedla, H. Birrie, and G. Medhin, “Transmission dynamics of Schistosoma mansoni in an irrigation setting in Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 9, pp. 147–156, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. Alemu, A. Atnafu, Z. Addis et al., “Soil transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in Zarima town, northwest Ethiopia,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 11, p. 189, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. P. Pesigan, N. G. Hairston, J. J. Jauregui et al., “Studies on Schistosoma japonicum infection in the Philippines. The molluscan host,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 18, pp. 481–578, 1958. View at Google Scholar
  26. C. S. Barbosa, T. C. Favre, T. N. Wanderley, A. C. Callou, and O. S. Pieri, “Assessment of schistosomiasis, through school surveys, in the Forest Zone of Pernambuco, Brazil,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 55–62, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. D. C. R. Silva, M. L. Barreto, A. M. O. Assis et al., “The relative influence of polyparasitism, environment, and host factors on schistosome infection,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 672–675, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. Handzel, D. M. Karanja, D. G. Addiss et al., “Geographic distribution of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Western Kenya: implications for anthelminthic mass treatment,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 318–323, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. Jemaneh, “Intestinal helminth infections in school children in Gondar Town and surrounding areas, Northwest Ethiopia,” SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science, vol. 22, pp. 209–220, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  30. R. John, M. Ezekiel, C. Philbert, and A. Andrew, “Schistosomiasis transmission at high altitude crater lakes in Western Uganda,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, article 110, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. O. Marçal Júnior, L. K. Hotta, R. M. Patucci, C. M. Glasser, and L. C. Dias, “Schistosomiasis mansoni in an area of low transmission. II. Risk factors for infection,” Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 331–335, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. Tadese and P. Beyne, “Irrigation practice and Intestinal Helminth infection in Southern and central zone of Tigray Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 23, pp. 48–56, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  33. V. T. Schall, “An interactive perspective of health education for the tropical disease control: the schistosomiasis case,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 93, pp. 51–58, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus