Table of Contents
ISRN Pediatrics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 652148, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/652148
Research Article

Maternal Vitamin A Deficiency during Pregnancy and Its Relation with Maternal and Neonatal Hemoglobin Concentrations among Poor Egyptian Families

1Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
2Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
3Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Received 24 May 2013; Accepted 7 July 2013

Academic Editors: M. Adhikari, G. J. Casimir, and B. Vasarhelyi

Copyright © 2013 A. M. Hamdy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) during pregnancy represents a major public health problem in developing countries. Anemia is a common consequence of VAD. We aimed to measure serum retinol concentrations of a sample of poor Egyptian mothers and correlate it with their Hb% and cord Hb%. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 200 healthy mothers and their healthy full term newborns. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected for CBC and measurement of serum retinol concentrations. Results. Forty-seven mothers (23.5%) had VAD and 50% were anemic. Mothers with VAD had a significantly lower mean Hb% and a significantly higher frequency of anemia (95.7%) compared to mothers without VAD (35.9%). The relative risk for anemia among mothers with VAD was 2.7 (CI = 2.12–3.3). Newborns of mothers with VAD had a significantly lower mean cord Hb% compared to newborns of mothers without VAD. Maternal serum retinol concentrations were positively correlated with maternal Hb% and cord Hb%. Conclusion. Maternal VAD during pregnancy among poor mothers is associated with maternal anemia and lower Hb% of newborns at birth. Vitamin A supplementation is highly recommended for this vulnerable group.