Table of Contents
ISRN Cardiology
Volume 2013, Article ID 687069, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/687069
Review Article

Pathobiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Related Dyslipidemia: Focus on the Liver

Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Joseph Hospital, 2900 North Lake Shore, Chicago, IL 60657, USA

Received 29 November 2012; Accepted 18 December 2012

Academic Editors: J. Barzilay and J. Carlquist

Copyright © 2013 Aibek E. Mirrakhimov and Alaa M. Ali. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Young, M. Palta, J. Dempsey, J. Skatrud, S. Weber, and S. Badr, “The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 328, no. 17, pp. 1230–1235, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. M. Jaffe, J. Kjekshus, and S. S. Gottlieb, “Importance and management of chronic sleep apnoea in cardiology,” European Heart Journal. In press.
  3. Y. K. Loke, J. W. Brown, C. S. Kwok, A. Niruban, and P. K. Myint, “Association of obstructive sleep apnea with risk of serious cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Circulation, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 720–728, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  4. S. Pamidi and E. Tasali, “Obstructive sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes: is there a link?” Frontiers in Neurology, vol. 3, article 126, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  5. A. E. Mirrakhimov, “Obstructive sleep apnea and kidney disease: is there any direct link?” Sleep & Breathing, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1009–1016, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  6. J. Colish, J. R. Walker, N. Elmayergi et al., “Obstructive sleep apnea: effects of continuous positive airway pressure on cardiac remodeling as assessed by cardiac biomarkers, echocardiography, and cardiac MRI,” Chest, vol. 141, pp. 674–681, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  7. L. Lavie, “Oxidative stress inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 4, pp. 1391–1403, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  8. B. J. Arsenault, S. M. Boekholdt, and J. J. P. Kastelein, “Lipid parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular disease,” Nature Reviews Cardiology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 197–206, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Hasan, N. Uzma, T. L. N. Swamy, A. Shoba, and B. S. Kumar, “Correlation of clinical profiles with obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome,” Sleep and Breathing, vol. 16, pp. 111–116, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Q. C. Lin, X. B. Zhang, G. P. Chen, D. Y. Huang, H. B. Din, and A. Z. Tang, “Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with some components of metabolic syndrome in nonobese adults,” Sleep and Breathing, vol. 16, pp. 571–578, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. B. Newman, F. J. Nieto, U. Guidry et al., “Relation of sleep-disordered breathing to cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Sleep Heart Health study,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 154, no. 1, pp. 50–59, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. R. Coughlin, L. Mawdsley, J. A. Mugarza, P. M. A. Calverley, and J. P. H. Wilding, “Obstructive sleep apnoea is independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome,” European Heart Journal, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 735–741, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. McArdle, D. Hillman, L. Beilin, and G. Watts, “Metabolic risk factors for vascular disease in obstructive sleep apnea: a matched controlled study,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 175, no. 2, pp. 190–195, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Theorell-Haglöw, C. Berne, C. Janson, and E. Lindberg, “The role of obstructive sleep apnea in metabolic syndrome: a population-based study in women,” Sleep Medicine, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 329–334, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. F. Drager, H. F. Lopes, C. Maki-Nunes et al., “The impact of obstructive sleep apnea on metabolic and inflammatory markers in consecutive patients with metabolic syndrome,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 8, Article ID e12065, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. F. Roche, E. Sforza, V. Pichot et al., “Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnea influences high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the elderly,” Sleep Medicine, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 882–886, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. K. Bartels, J. Börgel, S. Wieczorek et al., “Risk factors and myocardial infarction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: impact of β2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms,” BMC Medicine, vol. 5, article 1, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Kono, K. Tatsumi, T. Saibara et al., “Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with some components of metabolic syndrome,” Chest, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 1387–1392, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. C. B. Tan, W. S. Chow, J. C. M. Lam et al., “HDL dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 184, no. 2, pp. 377–382, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Chung, I. Y. Yoon, C. H. Lee, and J. W. Kim, “The effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on vascular functions and serum cardiovascular risk factors in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Sleep and Breathing, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. K. Sharma, S. Agrawal, D. Damodaran et al., “CPAP for the metabolic syndrome in patients with obstructive sleep apnea,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, pp. 2277–2286, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  22. C. L. Phillips, B. J. Yee, N. S. Marshall, P. Y. Liu, D. R. Sullivan, and R. R. Grunstein, “Continuous positive airway pressure reduces postprandial lipidemia in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 184, pp. 355–361, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  23. C. Cuhadaroğlu, A. Utkusavaş, L. Oztürk, S. Salman, and T. Ece, “Effects of nasal CPAP treatment on insulin resistance, lipid profile, and plasma leptin in sleep apnea,” Lung, vol. 187, pp. 75–81, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  24. Y. Kawano, A. Tamura, and J. Kadota, “Association between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and the ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,” Metabolism, vol. 61, pp. 186–192, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Can, S. Açikgöz, G. Mungan et al., “Serum cardiovascular risk factors in obstructive sleep apnea,” Chest, vol. 129, pp. 233–237, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  26. M. H. Dominiczak and M. J. Caslake, “Apolipoproteins: metabolic role and clinical biochemistry applications,” Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 48, pp. 498–515, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  27. Y. Zheng, S. E. Gardner, and M. C. Clarke, “Cell death, damage-associated molecular patterns, and sterile inflammation in cardiovascular disease,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 31, pp. 2781–2786, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  28. H. Shinkai, “Cholesteryl ester transfer-protein modulator and inhibitors and their potential for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases,” Journal of Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 8, pp. 323–331, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  29. G. L. Semenza, “Regulation of oxygen homeostasis by hypoxia-Inducible factor 1,” Physiology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 97–106, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. R. Prabhakar, G. K. Kumar, and Y. J. Peng, “Sympatho-adrenal activation by chronic intermittent hypoxia,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 113, pp. 1304–1310, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  31. M. Lafontan and D. Langin, “Lipolysis and lipid mobilization in human adipose tissue,” Progress in Lipid Research, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 275–297, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Barceló, J. Piérola, M. de la Peña et al., “Free fatty acids and the metabolic syndrome in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1418–1423, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. C. Jun, L. F. Drager, S. S. Najjar et al., “Effects of sleep apnea on nocturnal free fatty acids in subjects with heart failure,” Sleep, vol. 34, pp. 1207–1213, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  34. Z. Yao and Y. Wang, “Apolipoprotein C-III and hepatic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein production,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 23, pp. 206–212, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  35. F. Faiz, A. J. Hooper, and F. M. van Bockxmeer, “Molecular pathology of familial hypercholesterolemia, related dyslipidemias and therapies beyond the statins,” Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, vol. 49, pp. 1–17, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  36. A. D. Sniderman, J. de Graaf, and P. Couture, “Low-density lipoprotein-lowering strategies: target versus maximalist versus population percentile,” Current Opinion in Cardiology, vol. 27, pp. 405–411, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  37. B. V. Howard, “Insulin resistance and lipid metabolism,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 84, pp. 28J–32J, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  38. J. C. Jun, M. K. Shin, Q. Yao et al., “Acute hypoxia induces hypertriglyceridemia by decreasing plasma triglyceride clearance in mice,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 303, pp. E377–E388, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  39. F. S. Luyster, K. E. Kip, O. J. Drumheller et al., “Sleep apnea is related to the atherogenic phenotype, lipoprotein subclass B,” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, vol. 8, pp. 155–161, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  40. J. Li, L. N. Thorne, N. M. Punjabi et al., “Intermittent hypoxia induces hyperlipidemia in lean mice,” Circulation Research, vol. 97, no. 7, pp. 698–706, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. Li, D. N. Grigoryev, S. Q. Ye et al., “Chronic intermittent hypoxia upregulates genes of lipid biosynthesis in obese mice,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 1643–1648, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Li, V. Savransky, A. Nanayakkara, P. L. Smith, C. P. O'Donnell, and V. Y. Polotsky, “Hyperlipidemia and lipid peroxidation are dependent on the severity of chronic intermittent hypoxia,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 557–563, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. V. Savransky, A. Nanayakkara, J. Li et al., “Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces atherosclerosis,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 175, no. 12, pp. 1290–1297, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Li, A. Nanayakkara, J. Jun, V. Savransky, and V. Y. Polotsky, “Effect of deficiency in SREBP cleavage-activating protein on lipid metabolism during intermittent hypoxia,” Physiological Genomics, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 273–280, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. V. Savransky, J. Jun, J. Li et al., “Dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia are attenuated by deficiency of stearoyl coenzyme a desaturase,” Circulation Research, vol. 103, no. 10, pp. 1173–1180, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus