Table 2: The influence of host genes on the structure of the intestinal microbiome in gnotobiotic rodents [32].

Mouse modelPhenotype/microbiome in mouse modelSystemic manifestation of abnormal microbiome in miceResults of fecal transplant to wild type animalReferences

Rag2-knockoutNo functional B and T cells/inflammatory colitisRecurrent infectionsInflammatory colitis[23, 24]

Tbx21-knockoutNo functional Th1 cells/Crohn’s disease, colitisAsthma, autoimmune disease, and various malignanciesCrohn’s disease, colitis, asthma, and autoimmune disease[25]

TLR5-knockoutNo flagellin receptorMetabolic syndrome: insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, fat deposition on omentum, and atherosclerosisMetabolic syndrome: insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, fat deposition on omentum, and atherosclerosis[26]

SHP-1 mutationNo T, B cells and no immunoglobulins/colitisAutoimmune disease, alopecia, glomerulonephritis, pneumonitis, colitis, and paws inflammation triggered by microbiotaColitis alopecia, glomerulonephritis, and pneumonitis[27, 28]

NLR-P3 gene mutationCold urticaria inflammatory disease, dysbiosisDysbiosis, cold urticaria inflammatory diseaseColitis, cold urticaria inflammatory disease[29]

NOD-2 mutationAbnormal innate immune responseVarious adenocarcinomasCrohn’s disease, dysbiosis[30, 31]

Rag2: recombination activating gene 2.
NLR-P3: nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD) like receptors P3.
Tbx21: T cell specific T-box transcription factor (crucial transcription factor for TH1 cells); TLR-5: toll-like receptor 5.
SHP-1: Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1.
NOD-2: nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2.