Table 1: General description, cellular localization, and biological functions for set of candidate genes evaluated as reference genes in the present study.

Gene symbol DescriptionCellular localizationBiological function/component

A2M Alpha 2-microglobulin CytoplasmA protease inhibitor and cytokine transporter

ACTB β-actin CytoplasmCytoskeletal structural protein, nucleotide, and ATP binding

B2M Beta 2-microglobulin Golgi membrane, plasma membrane, early endosome membrane, extracellular regionCytoskeletal protein, immune response, protein binding

EEF1A1 Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1CytoplasmTranslation elongation factor activity

GAPDH Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase Plasma membraneGlycolytic enzyme, oxidoreductase in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis

GTP GTP-binding protein Cytoplasm and nucleusBiogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit

HMBS Hydroxymethylbilane synthase CytoplasmHeme synthesis, porphyrin metabolism, transferase activity

HPRT1 Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferaseCytoplasmPurine synthesis in salvage pathway

RPL22 Ribosomal protein L22CytoplasmComponent of the 60S subunit and encodes a ribosomal protein

RPL4 Ribosomal protein L4CytoplasmComponent of the 60S subunit and encodes a ribosomal protein

RPS15 Ribosomal protein S15 CytoplasmProtein synthesis/40S subribosome

RPS18 Ribosomal protein S18 CytoplasmComponent of the 40S ribosome

RPS23 Ribosomal protein S23 CytoplasmProtein synthesis/40S subribosome

RPS9 Ribosomal protein S9 CytoplasmProtein synthesis/40S subribosome

UBC Ubiquitin CCytoplasm and nucleusProtein degradation

UXT Ubiquitously expressed transcript Cytoplasm and nucleusTranscriptional activation, ATP binding, microtubule binding, unfolded protein binding