Table of Contents
ISRN Preventive Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 765354, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/765354
Clinical Study

Infectious Diseases and Vaccination Strategies: How to Protect the “Unprotectable”?

1Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric and Infectious Disease Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, 00100 Rome, Italy
2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, 20121 Milan, Italy

Received 3 February 2013; Accepted 17 March 2013

Academic Editors: B. Forghani, Z. Michelini, and V. Usonis

Copyright © 2013 Elena Bozzola et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Streefland, A. M. R. Chowdhury, and P. Ramos-Jimenez, “Patterns of vaccination acceptance,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 1705–1716, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. Filia, M. de Crescenzo, T. Seyler et al., “Measles resurges in Italy: preliminary data from September 2007 to May 2008,” Euro Surveillance, vol. 13, no. 29, article 18928, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Measles epidemic attributed to inadequate vaccination coverage—Campania, Italy, 2002,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 52, no. 43, pp. 1044–1047, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  4. S. C. de Greeff, F. R. Mooi, A. Westerhof et al., “Pertussis disease burden in the household: how to protect young infants,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 1339–1345, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. M. Cortese, A. L. Baughman, K. Brown, and P. Scrivasta, “A “new age” in pertussis prevention new opportunities through adult vaccination,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 177–185, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  6. M. C. Shinall Jr., T. R. Peters, Y. Zhu, Q. Chen, and K. A. Poehling, “Potential impact of acceleration of the pertussis vaccine primary series for infants,” Pediatrics, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 1021–1026, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. V. Briand, I. Bonmarin, and D. Lévy-Bruhl, “Study of the risk factors for severe childhood pertussis based on hospital surveillance data,” Vaccine, vol. 25, no. 41, pp. 7224–7232, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Juretzko, R. Von Kries, M. Hermann, C. H. Wirsing von König, J. Weil, and G. Giani, “Effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccine assessed by hospital-based active surveillance in Germany,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 162–167, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. Kowalzik, A. P. Barbosa, V. R. Fernandes et al., “Prospective multinational study of pertussis infection in hospitalized infants and their household contacts,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 238–242, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. M. Wendelboe, E. Njamkepo, A. Bourillon et al., “Transmission of Bordetella pertussis to young infants,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 293–299, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. I. Ward, J. D. Cherry, S. J. Chang et al., “Bordetella Pertussis infections in vaccinated and unvaccinated adolescents and adults, as assessed in a national prospective randomized acellular pertussis vaccine trial (APERT),” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. I. Ward, J. D. Cherry, S. J. Chang et al., “Efficacy of an acellular pertussis vaccine among adolescents and adults,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 15, pp. 1555–1563, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. W. Hay and J. I. Ward, “Economic considerations for pertussis booster vaccination in adolescents,” The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 24, pp. S127–S133, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  14. G. M. Lee, C. LeBaron, T. V. Murphy, S. Lett, S. Schauer, and T. A. Lieu, “Pertussis in adolescents and adults: should we vaccinate?” Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 6, pp. 1675–1684, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. E. Quinn and P. B. McIntyre, “The impact of adolescent pertussis immunization, 2004–2009: lessons from Australia,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 666–674, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  16. F. R. Mooi and S. C. de Greeff, “The case for maternal vaccination against pertussis,” Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 614–624, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. M. Chuk, S. B. Lambert, M. L. May et al., “Pertussis in infants: how to protect the vulnerable?” Communicable Diseases Intelligence, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 449–456, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. M. Dylag and S. I. Shah, “Administration of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine to parents of high-risk infants in the neonatal intensive care unit,” Pediatrics, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. e550–e555, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. E. Pichichero, “Booster vaccinations: can immunologic memory outpace disease pathogenesis?” Pediatrics, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 1633–1641, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. T. Francis, “Maternal vaccination against pertussis,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 214–215, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Sauerbrei, J. Prager, A. Bischoff, and P. Wutzler, “Antibodies against vaccine-preventable diseases in pregnant women and their offspring. Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus,” Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 16–20, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. A. Gall, J. Myers, and M. Pichichero, “Maternal immunization with tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccine: effect on maternal and neonatal serum antibody levels,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 204, no. 4, pp. 334.e1–334.e5, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. J. Van Savage, M. D. Decker, K. M. Edwards, S. H. Sell, and D. T. Karzon, “Natural history of pertussis antibody in the infant and effect on vaccine response,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 161, no. 3, pp. 487–492, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. A. Englund, E. L. Anderson, G. F. Reed et al., “The effect of maternal antibody on the serologic response and the incidence of adverse reactions after primary immunization with acellular and whole-cell pertussis vaccines combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids,” Pediatrics, vol. 96, no. 3, part 2, pp. 580–584, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Bechini, E. Tiscione, S. Boccalini, M. Levi, and P. Bonanni, “Acellular pertussis vaccine use in risk groups (adolescents, pregnant women, newborns and health care workers): a review of evidences and recommendations,” Vaccine, vol. 30, pp. 5179–5190, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  26. E. Leuridan, N. Hens, V. Hutse, M. Ieven, M. Aerts, and P. Van Damme, “Early waning of maternal measles antibodies in era of measles elimination: longitudinal study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 340, no. 7756, p. 1123, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. X. Zhang, Y. Shirayama, Y. Zhang et al., “Duration of maternally derived antibody against measles: a seroepidemiological study of infants aged under 8 months in Qinghai, China,” Vaccine, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 752–757, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  28. D. S. Diekema, “Improving childhood vaccination rates,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 5, pp. 391–393, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  29. S. S. Chaves, A. S. Lopez, T. L. Watson et al., “Varicella in infants after implementation of the US varicella vaccination program,” Pediatrics, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 1071–1077, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  30. F. Pozza, C. Piovesan, F. Russo, A. Bella, P. Pezzotti, and L. Emberti Gialloreti, “Impact of universal vaccination on the epidemiology of varicella in Veneto, Italy,” Vaccine, vol. 29, no. 51, pp. 9480–9487, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  31. B. Dai, Z. Chen, Q. Liu et al., “Duration of immunity following immunization with live measles vaccine: 15 years of observation in Zhejiang Province, China,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 415–423, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. Cohen, J. M. White, E. J. Savage et al., “Vaccine effectiveness estimates, 2004-2005 mumps outbreak, England,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 12–17, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  33. Y. Asano, T. Nagai, and T. Miyata, “Long-term protective immunity of recipients of the OKA strain of live varicella vaccine,” Pediatrics, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 667–671, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. J. Anderson and J. F. Seward, “Mumps epidemiology and immunity: the anatomy of a modern epidemic,” The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 27, supplement 10, pp. S75–S79, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  35. K. J. Stittelaar, R. L. de Swart, and A. D. M. E. Osterhaus, “Vaccination against measles: a neverending story,” Expert Review of Vaccines, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 151–159, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus