Table of Contents
ISRN Pharmacology
Volume 2013, Article ID 768359, 5 pages
Research Article

Antimutagenic and Antiapoptotic Effects of Aqueous Root Extract of Inula racemosa Hook. f. on 4-NQO-Induced Genetic Damage in Mice

1Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, School of Life Science, University of Madras, Guindy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600 113, India
2Department of Microbial Technology, School of Biological Science, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, Tamil Nadu 625 021, India

Received 27 June 2013; Accepted 24 July 2013

Academic Editors: K. Cimanga, G. Edwards, and G. Gervasini

Copyright © 2013 P. Arumugam and M. Murugan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The present study was performed as part of an attempt to authenticate the use of Inula racemosa root extract as traditional medicine in India by experimentally investigating their protective effects on 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) induced DNA damage and apoptosis in mice bone marrow cells. Aqueous root extract (ARE) of Inula racemosa (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw) with and without 4-NQO along with vehicle control (H2O) were administered orally for five consecutive days. 4-NQO (7.5 mg/kg bw) was injected intraperitoneally to the mice on the sixth day. After 24 h, the animals were sacrificed and extracted bone marrow cells were used for micronuclei and apoptotic analysis. Antiapoptotic effect of ARE (400 mg/kg bw) was measured by the use of Annexin V-FITC assay kit. 4-NQO generated the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) by about 4.7 times the control value, 14.29 MnPCEs/2500 PCEs. Pretreatment with ARE significantly reduced the MnPCEs frequency (39–72%) with respect to their doses, and increased PCEs/NCEs ratio was observed over the 4-NQO alone. 4-NQO-induced total apoptotic cells were about 12% over the control which was significantly brought down to 3.5% by pretreatment with 400 mg/kg bw of ARE. This was the first report that recorded the protective effects of I. racemosa on 4-NQO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in mice bone marrow cells.