Table of Contents
ISRN Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 783190, 9 pages
Review Article

A Review of the Inflammatory Chorioretinopathies: The White Dot Syndromes

1Department of Ophthalmology, Blanchfield Army Community Hospital, 650 Joel Drive, Fort Campbell, KY 42223, USA
2Department of Ophthalmology, Madigan Army Medical Center, 9040 Fitzsimmons Drive, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Tacoma, WA 98431, USA

Received 13 May 2013; Accepted 18 July 2013

Academic Editors: D. Frommhold, A. Jalili, A. Kamal, and B. Kim

Copyright © 2013 Courtney M. Crawford and Okezie Igboeli. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The white dot syndromes are a group of inflammatory chorioretinopathies of unknown etiology which have in common a unique and characteristic appearance of multiple yellow-white lesions affecting multiple layers of the retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choriocapillaris, and the choroid. They also have overlapping clinical features. We discuss acute retinal pigment epitheliopathy, multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis, acute zonal occult outer retinopathy, birdshot chorioretinopathy, and serpiginous choroidopathy. Some of these diseases are associated with a viral prodrome suggesting a possible viral/infectious etiology, while others are associated with a number of systemic processes suggesting an autoimmune etiology. We also review the presentation, evaluation/diagnosis, and treatment of these entities as well as the prognosis. Where applicable we discuss recent advancements in diagnosing and treating the white dot syndromes.