Table of Contents
ISRN Condensed Matter Physics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 806374, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/806374
Research Article

Growth of Films by RF Magnetron Sputtering: Studies on the Structural, Optical, and Electrochromic Properties

Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, India

Received 18 June 2013; Accepted 28 July 2013

Academic Editors: K. Haenen and L. Pusztai

Copyright © 2013 S. Subbarayudu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. G. Granqvist, Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1995.
  2. K. Hinokuma, A. Kishimoto, and T. Kudo, “Coloration dynamics of spin-coated MoO3 • nH2O electrochromic films fabricated from peroxo-polymolybdate solution,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 141, pp. 876–879, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  3. C. Julien, Lithium Batteries, New Materials, Developments and Perspectives, Edited by: G. Pistoria, North Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1994.
  4. W. Li, F. Cheng, Z. Tao, and J. Chen, “Vapor-transportation preparation and reversible lithium intercalation/deintercalation of α-MoO3 microrods,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 119–124, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Scarminio, A. Lourenço, and A. Gorenstein, “Electrochromism and photochromism in amorphous molybdenum oxide films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 302, no. 1-2, pp. 66–70, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. K. Prasad, D. J. Kubinski, and P. I. Gouma, “Comparison of sol-gel and ion beam deposited MoO3 thin film gas sensors for selective ammonia detection,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 93, no. 1–3, pp. 25–30, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Gretener, J. Perrenouda, L. Kranza et al., “Development of MoOx thin films as back contact buffer for CdTe solar cells in substrate configuration,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 535, pp. 193–197, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. T. S. Sian and G. B. Reddy, “Stoichiometric amorphous MoO3 films: a route to high performance electrochromic devices,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 98, no. 2, Article ID 026104, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. W.-Q. Yang, Z.-R. Wei, X.-H. Zhu, and D.-Y. Yang, “Strong influence of substrate temperature on the growth of nanocrystalline MoO3 thin films,” Physics Letters A, vol. 373, no. 43, pp. 3965–3968, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Sivakumar, R. Gopalakrishnan, M. Jayachandran, and C. Sanjeeviraja, “Characterization on electron beam evaporated α-MoO3 thin films by the influence of substrate temperature,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. K. Sabhapathi, O. M. Hussain, S. Uthanna et al., “A.c. conductivity studies on Al/MoO3/Al sandwich structures,” Materials Science and Engineering B, vol. 32, no. 1-2, pp. 93–97, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. V. Ramana and C. M. Julien, “Chemical and electrochemical properties of molybdenum oxide thin films prepared by reactive pulsed-laser assisted deposition,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 428, no. 1–3, pp. 114–118, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. V. Ramana, V. V. Atuchin, V. G. Kesler et al., “Growth and surface characterization of sputter-deposited molybdenum oxide thin films,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 253, no. 12, pp. 5368–5374, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Uthanna, V. Nirupama, and J. F. Pierson, “Substrate temperature influenced structural, electrical and optical properties of dc magnetron sputtered MoO3 films,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 256, no. 10, pp. 3133–3137, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Srinivasarao, B. Rajini Kanth, and P. K. Mukhopadhyay, “Optical and IR studies on r.f. magnetron sputtered ultra-thin MoO3 films,” Applied Physics A, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 985–990, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I. Navas, R. Vinodkumar, K. J. Lethy et al., “Growth and characterization of molybdenum oxide nanorods by RF magnetron sputtering and subsequent annealing,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 42, no. 17, Article ID 175305, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. H. Mohamed and S. Venkataraj, “Thermal stability of amorphous molybdenum trioxide films prepared at different oxygen partial pressures by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 636–643, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Subbarayudu, V. Madhavi, and S. Uthanna, “Post-deposition annealing controlled structural and optical properties of RF magnetron sputtered MoO3 films,” Advanced Materials Letters, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 637–642, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  19. R. S. Patil, M. D. Uplane, and P. S. Patil, “Structural and optical properties of electrodeposited molybdenum oxide thin films,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 252, no. 23, pp. 8050–8056, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Itoh, I. Matsubara, W. Shin, N. Izu, and M. Nishibori, “Preparation of layered organic-inorganic nanohybrid thin films of molybdenum trioxide with polyaniline derivatives for aldehyde gases sensors of several tens ppb level,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 512–520, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. M. Martinez, J. Torres, L. D. Lopez Correno, and M. E. Rodriguez-Garcia, “Effect of the substrate temperature on the physical properties of molybdenum tri-oxide thin films obtained through the spray pyrolysis technique,” Materials Characterization, vol. 75, pp. 184–193, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  22. L. Boudaoud, N. Benramdane, R. Desfeux, B. Khelifa, and C. Mathieu, “Structural and optical properties of MoO3 and V2O5 thin films prepared by Spray Pyrolysis,” Catalysis Today, vol. 113, no. 3-4, pp. 230–234, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C.-S. Hsu, C.-C. Chan, H.-T. Huang, C.-H. Peng, and W.-C. Hsu, “Electrochromic properties of nanocrystalline MoO3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, no. 15, pp. 4839–4844, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Kaur, V. D. Vankar, and M. C. Bhatnagar, “Effect of MoO3 addition on the NO2 sensing properties of SnO2 thin films,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 650–655, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Dhanasankar, K. K. Purushothaman, and G. Muralidharan, “Effect of temperature of annealing on optical, structural and electrochromic properties of sol-gel dip coated molybdenum oxide films,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 6, pp. 2074–2079, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. H. Mohamed, O. Kappertz, J. M. Ngaruiya, T. P. Leervad Pedersen, R. Drese, and M. Wuttig, “Correlation between structure, stress and optical properties in direct current sputtered molybdenum oxide films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 429, no. 1-2, pp. 135–143, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. S. Oh, B. S. Yang, J. H. Lee et al., “Improvement of electrical and optical properties of molybdenum oxide thin films by ultralow pressure sputtering method,” Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, vol. 30, no. 3, Article ID 031501, 7 pages, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  28. T. Siciliano, A. Tepore, E. Filippo, G. Micocci, and M. Tepore, “Characteristics of molybdenum trioxide nanobelts prepared by thermal evaporation technique,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 114, no. 2-3, pp. 687–691, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. V. Nirupama, K. R. Gunasekhar, B. Sreedhar, and S. Uthanna, “Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structural and optical properties of dc reactive magnetron sputtered molybdenum oxide films,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 272–278, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction, Addison Wesley, London, UK, 2nd edition, 1978.
  31. T. Ivanova, K. A. Gesheva, and A. Szekeres, “Structure and optical properties of CVD molybdenum oxide films for electrochromic application,” Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 21–24, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. K. Sabhapathi, O. M. Hussain, P. S. Reddy et al., “Optical absorption studies in molybdenum trioxide thin films,” Physica Status Solidi A, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 167–173, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Tauc, Amourphous and Liquid Semiconductor, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1974.
  34. J. Okumu, F. Koerfer, C. Salinga, T. P. Pedersen, and M. Wuttig, “Gasochromic switching of reactively sputtered molybdenumoxide films: a correlation between film properties and deposition pressure,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 515, no. 4, pp. 1327–1333, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. Miyata and S. Akiyoshi, “Preparation and electrochromic properties of rf-sputtered molybdenum oxide films,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1651–1655, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” Journal of Physics E, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 1214–1222, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. Reyes-Betanzo, J. L. Herrera-Pérez, G. H. Cocoletzi, and O. Zelaya-Angel, “Refractive index of colored films of molybdenum trioxide,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 223–226, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Cárdenas, J. Torres, and J. E. Alfonso, “Optical characterization of MoO3 thin films produced by continuous wave CO2 laser-assisted evaporation,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 478, no. 1-2, pp. 146–151, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic tungsten oxide films: review of progress 1993-1998,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 201–262, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S.-Y. Lin, C.-M. Wang, K.-S. Kao, Y.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Liu, “Electrochromic properties of MoO3 thin films derived by a sol-gel process,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus