Table of Contents
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 814062, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/814062
Review Article

The Intrauterine Device in Women with Diabetes Mellitus Type I and II: A Systematic Review

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tygerberg Hospital, Western Cape 7505, South Africa
2Reproductive Health and Fertility Regulation, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa

Received 21 September 2013; Accepted 22 October 2013

Academic Editors: L. G. Bahamondes, N. A. Ginsberg, P. G. Larsson, S. Palomba, and J. G. Schenker

Copyright © 2013 Norman D. Goldstuck and Petrus S. Steyn. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Women with diabetes mellitus type I and type II need effective contraception for personal and medical reasons. Long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are among the most efficient and cost-effective methods. Study Design. We searched the Popline, PubMed, and clinicaltrials.gov databases from 1961 to March 2013 for studies on the efficacy of the IUD in diabetic women and the possible changes it may produce in laboratory parameters. Studies of at least 30 subjects with DM1 or DM2 who were studied for 6 to 12 months depending on the method of analysis were eligible. Results. The search produced seven articles which gave event rate efficacy evaluable results and three which evaluated the effect of the IUD on laboratory parameters. One of the earlier efficacy studies showed an abnormally high pregnancy rate which sparked a controversy which is discussed in the Introduction section. The remaining 6 studies produced acceptable pregnancy rates. The three laboratory studies showed that the copper and levonorgestrel releasing IUD/IUS do not affect the diabetic state in any way. Conclusions. The copper bearing and levonorgestrel releasing IUDs are safe and effective in women with diabetes type I and diabetes type II although the evidence in the latter is limited.