Figure 3: Measurement of glyphosate-induced changes in intracellular Ca2+ level in HaCaT cells by spectrofluorometry with Fura-2/AM dye. (a) Ca2+ level was measured after treatment with NAC (20 mM), 0.1 mM glyphosate, and 10 nM TPA at 0–6 h. (b) Ca2+ level was measured after a prior treatment with 20 mM NAC. Results are mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *Decrease over control cells ( ); **increase over control cells ( ).