Table of Contents
ISRN Gastroenterology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 836203, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/836203
Review Article

Esophageal Sarcoidosis: A Review of Cases and an Update

1Department of Internal Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, East Meadow, NY 11554, USA
2Department of Gastroenterology, Nassau University Medical Center, East Meadow, NY 11554, USA

Received 10 January 2013; Accepted 30 January 2013

Academic Editors: A. J. Karayiannakis and C. Sperti

Copyright © 2013 Albin Abraham et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a chronic disorder that can virtually affect any organ system in the body. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of T lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, and noncaseating granulomas. Most commonly affected are the intrathoracic structures, with 90% of the reported cases involving the lungs. Esophageal involvement in sarcoidosis is extremely rare. Dysphagia is the most common presentation in these patients and can be attributed to various mechanisms such as direct esophageal wall infiltration, extrinsic compression, cranial neuropathy, and brainstem involvement. A thorough online literature review revealed only 23 reported cases of esophageal involvement in sarcoidosis. This paper reviews these reported cases in detail along with newer diagnostic and treatment options, including direction of future therapy.