Table 1: Main published studies on association between solar UV exposure and the risk of melanoma, basal cell and squamous cell, carcinoma onset.

ReferenceType of exposureEpidemiological index
Odds ratio (95% CI)
Comment

Melanoma

White et al. (1994) [33]Chronic0.3 (0.16–0.59)Exposure aged 2–20 years

Mark Elwood and Jopson 
(1997) [34]
Chronic (occupational)0.86 (0.77–0.96)Meta-analysis of 29 studies
Intermittent1.71 (1.54–1.90)
Total1.18 (1.02–1.38)

Autier and Doré(1998) [35] >1 year tropical or subtropical area4.3 (1.7–11.1)Exposure aged <10 years
>1 year tropical or subtropical area4.1 (1.3–13.4)Exposure in adolescence or adulthood

Walter et al. (1999) [36]Chronic0.67 (0.52–0.85)Exposure aged <18 years
Intermittent1.67 (1.31–2.12)

Kaskel et al. (2001) [37]Chronic0.3 (0.1–1.1)Exposure aged <12 years
Intermittent2.4 (1.2–4.9)

Whiteman et al. (2006) [38] Chronic2.49 (1.12–5.54)Head and neck
Intermittent0.38 (0.17–0.83)

Kricker et al. (2007) [39] Chronic1.03Multiple versus single melanoma
Intermittent (beach)1.85
Intermittent (recreational)1.38

Nagore et al.(2010)[40] Chronic (<20 years)0.6 (0.3–1.3)Age at diagnosis >60 years
Chronic (>20 years)2.1 (1.1–4.0)

Basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)

Armstrong and Kricker 
(2001) [41]
BCC:Meta-analysis
Chronic 1.19 (1.07–1.32)
Intermittent1.38 (1.24–1.54)
Total0.98 (0.68–1.41)
SCC:
Chronic1.64 (1.26–2.13)
Intermittent0.91 (0.68–1.22)
Total1.53 (1.02–2.27)

Zanetti et al. (2006) [42] BCC:
Chronic (occupational)1.2 (0.70–2.13)
Intermittent1.3 (0.72–2.39)
Total1.7 (0.97–3.03)
SCC:
Chronic (occupational)2.2 (1.13–4.08)
Intermittent0.6 (0.29–1.21)
Total1.8 (0.95–3.32)

Han et al. (2006) [43] BCC total1.95 (1.34–2.83)
SCC total1.97 (1.37–2.85)