Table of Contents
ISRN Hypertension
Volume 2013, Article ID 842512, 7 pages
Research Article

The Effect of Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 on the Arterial Reactivity of Hypertensive Patients during Cold Pressor Test

1Cardiology Clinic, Thriasio General Hospital of Elefsina, Paulou Mela 4 Ilioupolis 16346 Athens, Greece
21st Cardiology Clinic, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Athens, Greece
31st Cardiology Unit, Hippokration Hospital, Athens University Medical School, Athens, Greece

Received 28 September 2012; Accepted 22 October 2012

Academic Editors: N. Alexopoulos, A. A. Noorbala, and B. Waeber

Copyright © 2013 K. Keramida et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background: Arterial hypertension (AH), metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) are interrelated metabolic disorders. The aim of our study was to evaluate how the coexistence of MS or DM2 with AH influences arterial reactivity during cold pressor test (CPT). Methods: We studied 102 patients, 32 with AH (Group A), 38 with AH and MS (Group B) and 32 with AH and DM2 (Group C). All patients underwent full laboratory evaluation and measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), heart rate (HR) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVc-f) before and during CPT. Results: During CPT PWVc-f, SBP, DBP and HR were increased significantly in all studied groups, but the change of PWVc-f and HR during CPT was significantly greater in group A compared to group C. On the contrary, the coexistence of MS or DM2 with AH does not alter the response of BP to CPT. Conclusion: The increase of CV risk resulting from the coexistence of MS or DM2 with AH, is best expressed by PWVc-f, while the change of the former and HR during CPT possibly reflects dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system.