Table of Contents
ISRN Physiology
Volume 2013, Article ID 854572, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/854572
Review Article

Role of Candidate Genes Regulating Uterine Prostaglandins Biosynthesis for Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy in Domestic Animals

1Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad 211007, India
2Animal Genetics Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, India
3Division of Surgery, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, India
4Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, DUVASU, Mathura 281001, India
5Animal Nutrition Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, India

Received 24 March 2013; Accepted 19 April 2013

Academic Editors: A. T. Grazul-Bilska, K. Shirasuna, and D. Xiao

Copyright © 2013 Rohit Kumar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The survivability and opportunity of successful development of an embryo are influenced directly or indirectly by factors controlling uterine microenvironment. Out of all factors, hormones such as prostaglandins (PGs) released during the preimplantation period influence molecular interactions involved in maintenance of pregnancy through reciprocal interactions between the conceptus and endometrium. PGs are important regulators of female reproductive functions, namely, ovulation, uterine receptivity, implantation, and parturition. Among different classes of PGs, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are main prostanoids produced by human and bovine endometrium for successful growth and development of the posthatching blastocyst. In ruminants, PGF2α produced by endometrium is the major luteolytic agent, whereas PGE2 has luteoprotective and antiluteolytic properties. Therefore, the development and maintenance of the corpus luteum (CL), as well as establishment of pregnancy, depend on the balance of luteolytic PGF2α and luteotropic PGE2. In this review, we discussed the expression and function of genes which predominantly regulate the synthesis and their secretion of PGF2α and PGES, namely, PGFS (AKR1B5/AKR1C3), PGES, PGFR, and COX-2.