Table of Contents
ISRN Tropical Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 857935, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/857935
Review Article

Current Bancroftian Filariasis Elimination on Thailand-Myanmar Border: Public Health Challenges toward Postgenomic MDA Evaluation

1Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, 420/1 Rajvithi Road, Rajthewee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
2Department of Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mahanakorn University of Technology, 140 Cheum-Sampan Road, Nong-Chok, Bangkok 10530, Thailand
3Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Office of Disease Prevention and Control 11, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80000, Thailand
4Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
5Department of Fundamentals of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131, Thailand

Received 25 December 2012; Accepted 6 February 2013

Academic Editors: P. Horrocks, W. Mosca, P. A. Nogueira, J. Ogwal-Okeng, and S. Tesana

Copyright © 2013 Adisak Bhumiratana et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

From regional and global perspectives, Thailand has progressed toward lymphatic filariasis transmission-free zone in almost entire endemic provinces, being verified by WHO by the end of 2012 after the 5-year implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole as part of the National Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PELF) (2002–2006) and a 4-year expansion of post-MDA surveillance (2007–2010). However, Thai PELF has been challenging sensitive situations of not only border crossings of local people on Thailand-Myanmar border where focal distribution of forest- and forest fringe-related border bancroftian filariasis (BBF) is caused by nocturnally subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti in local people living in pockets of endemic villages, but also intense cross-border migrations of Mon and Tanintharyi workers from Myanmar to Thailand who harbor nocturnally periodic W. bancrofti microfilaremic infection causing the emergence of imported bancroftian filariasis (IBF). Thus, this paper discusses the apparent issues and problems pertaining to epidemiological surveillance and postgenomic MDA evaluation for 2010–2020 convalescent BBF and IBF. In particular, the population migration linked to fitness of benzimidazole-resistant W. bancrofti population is a topic of interest in this region whether the resistance is associated with pressure of the MDA 2 drugs and the vulnerabilities epidemiologically observed in complex BBF or IBF settings.