Review Article

Current Bancroftian Filariasis Elimination on Thailand-Myanmar Border: Public Health Challenges toward Postgenomic MDA Evaluation

Figure 6

Imported bancroftian filariasis settings and dynamics. As a result of cross-border migrations of Myanmar migrant workers (MMWs) to Thailand (b) influenced by “Push and Pull” effect (a), an introduced transmission of nocturnally periodic W. bancrofti in at-risk population in a hotspot village on the Thai-Myanmar border or in urbanized areas occurs with a large number of MMWs including microfilaremic carriers (c) uncovered by the multiple-dose DEC treatment or MDA 2 drugs (300 mg DEC plus 400 mg albendazole) (d). However, it is likely that more frequent human-vector combinations underlying border crossings and cross-border migrations, behavioral and occupational risks, low-hygienic human settlements, and discontinuing treatment will create a transmission dynamic in transmission-prone area where breeding Cx. quinquefasciatus.