Table of Contents
ISRN Cardiology
Volume 2013, Article ID 858921, 6 pages
Clinical Study

Assessment of Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease Using Heart Rate Variability in Postmenopausal Women: A Comparative Study between Urban and Rural Indian Women

1K S Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte University, Mangalore 575 018, India
2Department of Physiology, K S Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte University, Mangalore 575 018, India

Received 28 May 2013; Accepted 18 June 2013

Academic Editors: E. Liehn and G. Piccirillo

Copyright © 2013 Nikhil Narayanaswamy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cardiovascular diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. A major determinant of cardiovascular health is the status of autonomic nervous system and assessment of Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Heart Rate Variability is a noninvasive and sensitive technique to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic control. Reduced HRV is an independent risk factor for the development of heart disease. This study evaluated the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases using HRV, between urban and rural Indian postmenopausal women ranging in age from 40 to 75 years. Findings of the analysis of HRV have showed that the total power which reflects overall modulation of cardiac autonomic activity (   versus ), the absolute power of high frequency which is surrogate of cardiovagal activity (   versus ), and low frequency that reflects cardiac sympathetic activity (   versus ) were significantly higher in urban women than that of their rural counterparts. Further, among the anthropometric measures, waist circumference was significantly correlated with indices of HRV. The study concludes that rural Indian women are associated with an additional risk beyond that of ageing and postmenopausal status when compared to the urban women. The higher central obesity could be the contributing factor for developing higher risk for cardiovascular disease among the rural women.