Table of Contents
ISRN Ophthalmology
Volume 2013, Article ID 865834, 9 pages
Clinical Study

A Method for Visualization of Fine Retinal Vascular Pulsation Using Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Synchronized with Electrocardiogram

1School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, 124 Latrobe Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
2Department of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
3Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-9585, Japan

Received 9 January 2013; Accepted 14 February 2013

Academic Editors: J. O. Croxatto and U. U. Inan

Copyright © 2013 Dinesh Kant Kumar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Pulsatile changes in retinal vascular geometry over the cardiac cycle have clinical implication for diagnosis of ocular and systemic vascular diseases. In this study, we report a Vesselness Mapping of Retinal Image Sequence (VMRS) methodology to visualize the vessel pulsation and quantify the pulsatile motions in the cardiac cycle. Retinal images were recorded in an image sequence corresponding to 8 segments of the cardiac cycle using a nonmydriatic fundus camera (Canon CR45, Canon Inc., Japan) modified with ECG-synchronization. Individual cross-sectional vessel diameters were measured separately and the significance of the variations was tested statistically by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The graders observed an improved quality of vessel pulsation on a wide region around the optic disk using the VMRS. Individual cross- sectional vessel diameter measurement after visualization of pulsatile motions resulted in the detection of more significant diameter change for both arterioles (3.3  m, ) and venules (6.6  m, ) compared to individual measurement without visualization of the pulsatile motions (all P values > 0.05), showing an increase of 2.1  m and 4.7  m for arterioles and venules, respectively.