Table of Contents
ISRN Forestry
Volume 2013, Article ID 876939, 6 pages
Review Article

Effect of Additives on Wood Pellet Physical and Thermal Characteristics: A Review

Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada P7B 5E1

Received 26 December 2012; Accepted 13 January 2013

Academic Editors: S. Sun and S. Yildiz

Copyright © 2013 Dmitry Tarasov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Ministry of Energy of Canada, Ontario's Long-Term Energy Plan, Ministry of Energy of Canada, Ontario, Canada, 2010.
  2. The UNECE/FAO, Forest Products Annual Market Review, 2008-2009, United Nations, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  3. R. Sikkema, “Improvement of trade statistics on bioenergy,” in Proceedings of the IEA Workshop Development of meaningful statistics, pp. 1–20, IEA, Paris, France, 2008.
  4. G. Thek and I. Obernberg, The Pellet Handbook: The Production and Thermal Utilization of Biomass Pellets, Earthscan, London, UK, 2010.
  5. Pellet Fuel Institute, Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification For Residential/Commercial Densified Fuel, Pellet Fuel Institute, Arlington, Va, USA, 2010.
  6. D. Bradley, Canada Report on Bioenergy 2010, Canadian Bioenergy Association, Ottawa, Canada, 2010.
  7. G. Murray, Canadian Wood Pellet Update. PFI Annual Conference, Wood pellet association of Canada, Ponte Vedra Beach, Fla, USA, 2011.
  8. S. Jamieson, One Home at Time, Canadian Biomass Journal, Ontario, Canada, 2010.
  9. C. Harper, Wood Pellets Becoming a primary Product, U.S. Endowment for Forestry and Communities and the National Association of State Foresters, Greenville, SC, USA, 2011.
  10. European Pellet Council, Handbook for the Certification of Wood Pellets for Heating Purposes, European Pellet Council, Brussels, Belgium, 2011.
  11. S. Lebo, J. Gargulak, and T. McNally, ‘Lignin’, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2001.
  12. J. S. Tumuluru, C. Wright, J. R. Hess, and K. Kenney, “A review on biomass densification technologies for energy application,” Biofules, Bioproducts and Biorefining Journal, vol. 5, pp. 683–707, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. Stahl, J. Berghel, S. Frodeson, K. Granström, and R. Renström, “Effects on Pellet properties and energy use when starch is added in the wood-fuel pelletizing process,” Energy Fuels Journal, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1937–1945, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. P. Kofman, “The production of wood pellets,” Processing/Products 10, Coford Connects, Dublin, Ireland, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  15. BIOMASA Association, The Effect of Additives for Production Costs and Parameters of Wood Pellets, BIOMASA Association, Kysucky Lieskovec, Slovak Republic, 2011.
  16. M. Kuokkanen, T. Kuokkanen, and V. Pohjonen, “The development steps in eco-efficient pellet production and technology,” in Proceedings of the EnePro Conference, Energy Research at the University of Oulu, pp. 36–40, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 2009.
  17. M. Kuokkanen, T. Vilppo, T. Kuokkanen, T. Stoor, and J. Niinimaki, “Additives in wood pellets,” BioResources Journal, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 4331–4355, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  18. I. Mediavilla, L. S. Esteban, and M. J. Fernández, “Optimisation of pelletisation conditions for poplar energy crop,” Fuel Processing Technology Journal, vol. 104, pp. 7–15, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. Y. Li and H. Liu, “High-pressure densification of wood residues to form an upgraded fuel,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 177–186, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Wilson, Factors affecting pellets durability [M.S. thesis], A Thesis in Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Pensylvania State University, University Park, Pa, USA, 2010.
  21. L. Tabil, P. Adapa, and M. Kashaninejad, “In biomass feedstock pre-processing: densification,” in Biofuel's Engineering Process Technology, M. A. Dos Santos Bernardes, Ed., pp. 439–464, InTech, New York, NY, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  22. I. Obernberger and G. Thek, “Physical characterisation and chemical composition of densified biomass fuels with regard to their combustion behaviour,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 653–669, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Temmermana, F. Rabiera, P. D. Jensenb, H. Hartmannc, and T. Böhmc, “Comparative study of durability test methods for pellets and briquettes,” Biomass and Bioenergy Journal, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 964–972, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. B. Hahn, Existing Guidelines and Quality Assurance for Fuel Pellets-Pellets for Europe Project, UMBERA, Umweltorientierte Betriebsberatungs, Forschungs und Entsorgungs-Gesellschaft m.b.H, Schiestattring, Austria, 2004.
  25. N. Kaliyan and R. Vance Morey, “Factors affecting strength and durability of densified biomass products,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 337–359, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Nosek, J. Jandačka, and M. Holubcik, “Increasing the melting temperature of ash by adding different types of additives into wood pellets,” Care Tech 2011, University of Zilina, Zilina, Slovakia, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  27. M. Wu, D. Schott, and G. Lodewijks, “Physical properties of solid biomass,” Biomass and Bioenergy Journal, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 2097–2098, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  28. L. Sikanen and T. Vilppo, “Small scale pilot combustion experiments with wood pellets- the effect of pellet lenght,” The Open Renewable Energy Journal, vol. 5, pp. 1–6, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  29. R. Samuelsson, S. Larsson, M. Thyrel, and T. Lestander, “Moisture content and storage time influence the binding mechanisms in biofuel wood pellets,” Applied Energy Journal, vol. 99, pp. 109–115, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. T. Filbakk, R. Jirjis, J. Nurmi, and O. Høibø, “The effect of bark content on quality parameters of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pellets,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 3342–3349, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Gaur and T. Reed, Thermal Data For Natural and Synthetic Fuels, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1998.
  32. V. Francescato, E. Antononi, and L. Bergomi, Wood Fuels Handbook. Italian Agrioforestry Energy Association, Italian Agriforestry Association, Rome, Italy, 2008.
  33. T. D. Schowalter and J. J. Morrell, “Nutritional quality of Douglas-fir wood: effect of vertical and horizontal position on nutrient levels,” Wood and Fiber Science, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 158–164, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. J. Baker, “Wood fuel properties and fuel products from woods,” in Fuelwood Management and Utilization Seminar, pp. 14–25, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich, USA, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  35. A. Demirbas, “Relationships between lignin contents and heating values of biomass,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 183–188, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. Guo, J. C. Lim, X. Bi, S. Sokhansanj, and S. Melin, “Determination of effective thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of wood pellets,” Fuel, vol. 103, pp. 347–355, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. W. Guo, J. C. Lim, and S. Melin, Thermal Conductivity of Pellets, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada, 2009.
  38. S. Paulrud, Upgraded Biofuels-effects of quality on processing, handling characteristics, combustion and ash melting [Ph.D. thesis], Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umea, Sweden, 2004.
  39. J. Werther, M. Saenger, E. U. Hartge, T. Ogada, and Z. Siagi, “Combustion of agricultural residues,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1–27, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Öhman, C. Boman, H. Hedman, A. Nordin, and D. Boström, “Slagging tendencies of wood pellet ash during combustion in residential pellet burners,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 585–596, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Hansen, A. Jein, S. Hayes, and P. Bateman, English Handbook for Wood Pellet Combustion, Pellet Atlas, Muenchen, Germany, 2009.
  42. D. Bernhardt, M. Pohl, K. Gebauer, S. Unz, and M. Beckmann, Biogenous Residues for the Use as Wood Pellet Equivalent Fuels, Thermal Treatment Technologies & Hazardous Waste Combustors, Jacksonville, Fla, USA, Technical University Dresden, Institute of Power Engineering, Dresden, Germany, 2009.
  43. M. Olsson, J. Kjällstrand, and G. Petersson, “Specific chimney emissions and biofuel characteristics of softwood pellets for residential heating in Sweden,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 51–57, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. F. Biedermann and I. Obernberger, Ash-Related Problems During Biomass Combustion and Possibilites for a sustainble Ash utilization, BIOS Bioenergiesysteme GmbH, Graz, Austria, 2011.
  45. S. Paulrud, C. Nilsson, and M. Öhman, “Reed canary-grass ash composition and its melting behaviour during combustion,” Fuel, vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 1391–1398, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. L. L. Baxter, T. R. Miles, T. R. Miles et al., “The behavior of inorganic material in biomass-fired power boilers: field and laboratory experiences,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 54, no. 1–3, pp. 47–78, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. The Government of the Northwest Territories , BW McCloy, Associates Inc, NWT Wood Pellet Pre-Feasibility Analysis, FPInnovations, Forintek Division, Vancouver, British Columbia, 2009.
  48. J. Bates, Full Fuel Cycle Atmospheric Emissions and Global Warming Impacts From UK, Stationary Office, London, UK, 1995.
  49. J. Bates and S. Henry, Carbon Factor for Wood Fuels for the Supplier Obligation, AEA Technology, Oxfordshire, UK, 2009.
  50. E. Roth, What Can We Expect from Wood Pellets?Leonardo ENERGY, Paris, France, 2006.
  51. P. Lehtikangas, Quality Properties of Fuel Pellets From Forest Biomass, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, 2002.