Table 4: The more common clinical disorders presenting with neurological and/or psychiatric FNS.

(I) Neurological

(a) Neurodegenerative
 Frontotemporal disorders (FTLD)
 Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
 Cognitive vascular disorders (CVD)
 Frontal variant of AD
 Corticobasal-ganglionic disorders (CBD)
(b) Cerebrovascular and cognitive vascular disorders
 Bland infarcts
  Strategic infarct
  Subcortical infarct
  Watershed infarct
  Frontal, sometimes bilateral as with common origin of both anterior cerebral arteries off the anterior communicating artery
  Brainstem infarct
  Cerebellar infarct
  Strategic infarct such as caudate nucleus, basal ganglia, and thalamus
  Frontal lobe amyloid angiopathy
  Amyloid angiopathy
  Subcortical hypertensive related
(c) Tumors
 Frontal lobe meningioma (Foster Kennedy syndrome)
(d) Traumatic brain injury
 Diffuse axonal injury
 Chronic subacute encephalopathy
(e) Multiple sclerosis
(f) Parkinson’s, Huntington’s
(g) Frontal lobe epilepsies
(h) Normal pressure hydrocephalus
(i) Neurotoxicology—alcohol

(II) Psychiatric

Mania and hypomania
Obsessive compulsive
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
William’s syndrome
Pervasive developmental disorders