Table of Contents
ISRN Nanotechnology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 893060, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/893060
Review Article

In Situ Real-Time TEM Reveals Growth, Transformation and Function in One-Dimensional Nanoscale Materials: From a Nanotechnology Perspective

Electron Microscopy and Analysis Facility, Materials Chemistry and Analysis Group, Tyndall National Institute, Cork, Ireland

Received 14 November 2012; Accepted 28 November 2012

Academic Editors: E. Cattaruzza, C.-L. Hsu, and W. Lu

Copyright © 2013 Nikolay Petkov. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. W. Urban, “Is science prepared for atomic-resolution electron microscopy?” Nature Materials, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 260–262, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi et al., “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature, vol. 464, no. 7288, pp. 571–574, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Dehm, J. M. Howe, and J. Zweck, Eds., In situ Electron Microscopy: Applications in Physics, Chemistry and Materials Science, Wiley-VCH GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2012.
  4. In situ Electron Microscopy at High Resolution, World Scientific Publishing, 2008.
  5. P. L. Gai, R. Sharma, and F. M. Ross, “Environmental (S)TEM studies of gas-liquid-solid interactions under reaction conditions,” MRS Bulletin, vol. 33, pp. 107–114, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  6. R. Sharma, “Kinetic measurements from in situ TEM observations,” Microscopy Research and Technique, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 144–152, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. X. Han and Z. Zhang, “Experimental nanomechanics of one-dimensional nanomaterials by in situ microscopy,” NANO: Brief Reports and Reviews, vol. 2, pp. 249–271, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  8. Q. Chen and L.-M. Peng, “Fabrication and electric measurements of nanostructures inside transmission electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy, vol. 111, pp. 948–954, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  9. D. Golberg, P. M. F. J. Costa, M.-S. Wang et al., “Nanomaterial engineering and property studies in a transmission electron microscope,” Advanced Materials, vol. 24, pp. 177–194, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  10. N. de Jonge and F. M. Ross, “Electron microscopy of specimens in liquid,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 6, pp. 695–704, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  11. X. H. Liu and J. Y. Huang, “In situ TEM electrochemistry of anode materials in lithium ion batteries,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 4, pp. 3844–3860, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  12. A. H. Zewail, “4D electron microscopy,” Science, vol. 328, p. 187, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. E. P. Butler and K. F. Hale, “Dynamic experiments in the electron microscope,” in Practical Methods in Electron Microscopy, A. M. Glauert, Ed., vol. 9, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  14. E. D. Boyes and P. L. Gai, “Environmental high resolution electron microscopy and applications to chemical science,” Ultramicroscopy, vol. 67, no. 1–4, pp. 219–232, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. http://hitachi-hta.com/products/electron-microscopes-and-focused-ion-beam/transmission-electron-microscopes/h-9500-300kv-te.
  16. http://www.cse.salford.ac.uk/sumc/2000fx.php.
  17. http://www.gatan.com/products/specimen_holders/products/628-Single-Tilt-Heating-Holder.php.
  18. http://www.denssolutions.com/en/our-products/sample-heating-systems.
  19. Y. Zhu and H. D. Espinosa, “An electromechanical material testing system for in situ electron microscopy and applications,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, pp. 14503–14508, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  20. http://www.nanofactory.com/news.asp?id=59&type=news.
  21. J. M. Grogan, L. Rotkina, and H. H. Bau, “In situ liquid-cell electron microscopy of colloid aggregation and growth dynamics,” Physical Review E, vol. 83, no. 6, Article ID 061405, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Westenfelder, J. C. Meyer, J. Biskupek et al., “Graphene-based sample supports for in situ high-resolution TEM electrical investigations,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 44, no. 5, Article ID 055502, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. J. M. Yuk, J. Park, P. Ercius et al., “High-resolution EM of colloidal nanocrystal growth using graphene liquid cells,” Science, vol. 336, pp. 61–64, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. S. Hofmann, R. Sharma, C. Ducati et al., “in situ observations of catalyst dynamics during surface-bound carbon nanotube nucleation,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 602–608, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Hofmann, R. Sharma, C. T. Wirth et al., “Ledge-flow-controlled catalyst interface dynamics during Si nanowire growth,” Nature Materials, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 372–375, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Kodambaka, J. Tersoff, M. C. Reuter, and F. M. Ross, “Germanium nanowire growth below the eutectic temperature,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5825, pp. 729–732, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. A. Sutter and P. W. Sutter, “Size-dependent phase diagram of nanoscale alloy drops used in vapor-liquid-solid growth of semiconductor nanowires,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 4943–4947, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. C. Lin, Y. Chen, D. Xu, and Y. Huang, “Growth of nickel silicides in Si and Si/SiOx core/shell nanowires,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 4721–4726, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Ogata, E. Sutter, X. Zhu, and S. Hofmann, “Ni-silicide growth kinetics in Si and Si/SiO2 core/shell nanowires,” Nanotechnology, vol. 22, no. 36, Article ID 365305, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. M. W. Larsson, L. Reine Wallenberg, A. I. Persson, and L. Samuelson, “Probing of individual semiconductor nanowhiskers by TEM-STM,” Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. Kallesøe, C. Y. Wen, T. J. Booth et al., “in situ creation and electrical characterization of nanowire devices,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, pp. 2965–2970, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. J. Andzane, N. Petkov, A. I. Livshits, J. J. Boland, J. D. Holmes, and D. Erts, “Two-terminal nanoelectromechanical devices based on germanium nanowires,” Nano Letters, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1824–1829, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D.-M. Tang, C.-L. Ren, M.-S. Wang et al., “Mechanical properties of Si nanowires as revealed by in situ transmission electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, pp. 1898–1904, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  34. C. M. Lieber and Z. L. Wang, “Functional nanowires,” MRS Bulletin, vol. 32, pp. 99–108, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  35. A. P. Graham, G. S. Duesberg, W. Hoenlein et al., “How do carbon nanotubes fit into the semiconductor roadmap?” Applied Physics A, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 1141–1151, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. G. Hobbs, N. Petkov, and J. D. Holmes, “Semiconductor nanowire fabrication by bottom-up and top-down paradigms,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1974–1991, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  37. O. Haydena, R. Agarwalb, and W. Lu, “Semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nanotoday, vol. 3, pp. 12–22, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  38. F. Patolsky, G. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire-based biosensors,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 78, no. 13, pp. 4261–4269, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. D. C. Bell, Y. Wu, C. J. Barrelet et al., “Imaging and analysis of nanowires,” Microscopy Research and Technique, vol. 64, no. 5-6, pp. 373–389, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. Zan, Q. M. Ramasse, U. Bagert, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene reknits its holes,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, pp. 3936–3640, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. T. LaGrange, G. H. Campbell, B. W. Reed et al., “Nanosecond time-resolved investigations using the in situ of dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM),” Ultramicroscopy, vol. 108, no. 11, pp. 1441–1449, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. H. Zewail and J. M. Thomas, 4D Electron Microscopy: Imaging in Space and Time, World Scientific Publishing, 2010.
  43. I. M. Abrams and J. W. McBrain, “A closed cell for electron microscopy,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 15, pp. 607–609, 1944. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. P. L. Gai and K. Kourtakis, “Solid-state defect mechanism in vanadyl pyrophosphate catalysts: implications for selective oxidation,” Science, vol. 267, no. 5198, pp. 661–663, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. http://www.fei.com/products/transmission-electron-microscopes/titan/etem.aspx.
  46. http://www.jeolusa.com/PRODUCTS/ElectronOptics/TransmissionElectronMicroscopesTEM/Software/PracticalRemoteInSituMicroscopyPRISM/tabid/596/Default.aspx.
  47. P. L. Gai and E. D. Boyes, “Angstrom analysis with dynamic in situ aberration corrected electron microscopy,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 241, no. 1, Article ID 012055, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. R. M. Tromp and M. C. Reuter, “Design of a new photoemission/low-energy electron microscope for surface studies,” Ultramicrosccopy, vol. 36, pp. 99–106, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. A. Botman, J. J. L. Mulders, R. Weemaes, and S. Mentink, “Purification of platinum and gold structures after electron-beam-induced deposition,” Nanotechnology, vol. 17, no. 15, pp. 3779–3785, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. http://www.protochips.com/products/aduro.html.
  51. M. I. van der Meulen, N. Petkov, M. A. Morris et al., “Single crystalline Ge1−x Mnx nanowires as building blocks for nanoelectronics,” Nano Letters, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 50–56, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. T. Harris, J. A. Martinez, E. A. Shaner et al., “Fabrication of a nanostructure thermal property measurement platform,” Nanotechnology, vol. 22, no. 27, Article ID 275308, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. Lei, D. H. Petersen, T. J. Booth et al., “Customizable in situ TEM devices fabricated in freestanding membranes by focused ion beam milling,” Nanotechnology, vol. 21, no. 40, Article ID 405304, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K. Mølhave, S. B. Gudnason, A. T. Pedersen, C. H. Clausen, A. Horsewell, and P. Bøggild, “Transmission electron microscopy study of individual carbon nanotube breakdown caused by joule heating in air,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1663–1668, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. K. H. Baloch, N. Voskanian, M. Bronsgeest, and J. Cumings, “Remote Joule heating by a carbon nanotube,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 7, pp. 316–319, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. M. Hummelgård, R. Zhang, T. Carlberg et al., “Nanowire transformation and annealing by Joule heating,” Nanotechnology, vol. 21, no. 16, Article ID 165704, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. H. Kohno, Y. Mori, S. Takeda, Y. Ohno, I. Yonenaga, and S. Ichikawa, “In situ transmission electron microscopy observation of the graphitization of silicon carbide nanowires induced by joule heating,” Applied Physics Express, vol. 3, no. 5, Article ID 055001, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. L. T. Ngo, D. Almécija, J. E. Sader et al., “Ultimate-strength germanium nanowires,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, pp. 2964–2968, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. B. Peng, M. Locascio, P. Zapol et al., “Measurements of near-ultimate strength for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and irradiation-induced crosslinking improvements,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 626–631, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. A. Bernal, R. Agrawal, B. Peng et al., “Effect of growth orientation and diameter on the elasticity of GaN nanowires. A combined in situ TEM and atomistic modeling investigation,” Nano Letters, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 548–555, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. H. Guo, K. Chen, Y. Oh et al., “Mechanics and dynamics of the strain-induced M1-M2 structural phase transition in individual VO2 nanowires,” Nano Letters, vol. 11, pp. 3207–3213, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  62. Z. L. Wang, Z. R. Dai, R. Gao, and J. L. Gole, “Measuring the Young's modulus of solid nanowires by in situ TEM,” Journal of Electron Microscopy, vol. 51, pp. S79–S85, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. D.-M. Tang, C.-L. Ren, X. Wei et al., “Mechanical properties of bamboo-like boron nitride nanotubes by in situ TEM and MD simulations: strengthening effect of interlocked joint interfaces,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, pp. 7362–7368, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  64. Y. Lu, C. Peng, Y. Ganesan, J. Y. Huang, and J. Lou, “Quantitative in situ TEM tensile testing of an individual nickel nanowire,” Nanotechnology, vol. 22, no. 35, Article ID 355702, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. E. Ruska, “Beitrag zur übermikroskopischen Abbildung bei höheren Drucken,” Kolloid-Zeitschrift, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 212–219, 1942. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. M. J. Williamson, R. M. Tromp, P. M. Vereecken, R. Hull, and F. M. Ross, “Dynamic microscopy of nanoscale cluster growth at the solid-liquid interface,” Nature Materials, vol. 2, pp. 532–536, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  67. K.-L. Liu, C.-C. Wu, Y.-J. Huang et al., “Novel microchip for in situ TEM imaging of living organisms and bio-reactions in aqueous conditions,” LAb on a Chip, vol. 8, pp. 1915–1921, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  68. N. Kolmakova and A. Kolmakov, “Scanning electron microscopy for in situ monitoring of semiconductor-liquid interfacial processes: electron assisted reduction of Ag ions from aqueous solution on the surface of TiO2 rutile nanowire,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 114, no. 40, pp. 17233–17237, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Y. Xia, P. Yang, Y. Sun et al., “One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications,” Advanced Materials, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 353–389, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. Helveg, C. López-Cartes, J. Sehested et al., “Atomic-scale imaging of carbon nanofibre growth,” Nature, vol. 427, no. 6973, pp. 426–429, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. R. Sharma, P. Rez, M. Brown, G. Du, and M. M. J. Treacy, “Dynamic observations of the effect of pressure and temperature conditions on the selective synthesis of carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 12, Article ID 125602, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. Lin, J. P. Y. Tan, C. Boothroyd, K. P. Loh, E. S. Tok, and Y. L. Foo, “Dynamical observation of bamboo-like carbon nanotube growth,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 2234–2238, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. Kallesøe, C.-Y. Wen, K. Mølhave, P. Bøggild, and F. M. Ross, “Measurement of local Si-nanowire growth kinetics using in situ transmission electron microscopy of heated cantilevers,” Small, vol. 6, pp. 2058–2064, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. J. B. Hannon, S. Kodambaka, F. M. Ross, and R. M. Tromp, “The influence of the surface migration of gold on the growth of silicon nanowires,” Nature, vol. 440, no. 7080, pp. 69–71, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. F. M. Ross, J. Tersoff, and M. C. Reuter, “Sawtooth faceting in silicon nanowires,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 95, Article ID 146104, 4 pages, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  76. J. E. Allen, E. R. Hemesath, D. E. Perea et al., “High-resolution detection of Au catalyst atoms in Si nanowires,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 168–173, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. E. Sutter and P. Sutter, “Phase diagram of nanoscale alloy particles used for vapor-liquid-solid growth of semiconductor nanowires,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 411–414, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. D. Gamalski, J. Tersoff, R. Sharma, C. Ducati, and S. Hofmann, “Formation of metastable liquid catalyst during subeutectic growth of germanium nanowires,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 2972–2976, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. D. Gamalski, C. Ducati, and S. Hofmann, “Cyclic supersaturation and triple phase boundary dynamics in germanium nanowire growth,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 115, no. 11, pp. 4413–4417, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. C. B. Collins, R. O. Carlson, and C. J. Gallagher, “Properties of gold-doped silicon,” Physical Review, vol. 105, p. 1168, 1957. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. E. Koren, G. Elias, A. Boag, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and Y. Rosenwaks, “Direct measurement of individual deep traps in single silicon nanowires,” Nano Letters, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 2499–2502, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. B. S. Kim, T. W. Koo, J. H. Lee et al., “Catalyst-free growth of single-crystal silicon and germanium nanowires,” Nano Letters, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 864–869, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. R. G. Hobbs, S. Barth, N. Petkov et al., “Seedless growth of sub-10 nm germanium nanowires,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132, no. 39, pp. 13742–13749, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. D. Li, M. H. Nielsen, J. R. I. Lee, C. Frandsen, J. F. Banfield, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Direction-specific interactions control crystal growth by oriented attachment,” Science, vol. 336, pp. 1014–1018, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. H. G. Liao, L. Cui, S. Whitelam, and H. Zheng, “Real-time imaging of Pt3Fe nanorod growth in solution,” Science, vol. 336, pp. 1011–1014, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. F. Léonard and A. A. Talin, “Electrical contacts to one- and two-dimensional nanomaterials,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 6, pp. 773–783, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. W. Lu, P. Xie, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire transistor performance limits and applications,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 2859–2876, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. I. Ferain, C. A. Colinge, and J. P. Colinge, “Multigate transistors as the future of classical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Nature, vol. 479, pp. 310–316, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  89. K. C. Lu, K. N. Tua, W. W. Wu, L. J. Chen, B. Y. Yoo, and N. V. Myung, “Point contact reactions between Ni and Si nanowires and reactive epitaxial growth of axial nano-NiSi/Si,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, Article ID 253111, 3 pages, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  90. W. W. Wu, K. C. Lu, C. W. Wang et al., “Growth of multiple metal/semiconductor nanoheterostructures through point and line contact reactions,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 3984–3989, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. Y. C. Chou, W. W. Wu, C. Y. Lee, C. Y. Liu, L. J. Chen, and K. N. Tu, “Heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation of epitaxial NiSi2 in [110] Si nanowires,” Journal of Physical Chemisty C, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 397–401, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. Y. C. Chou, W. W. Wu, S. L. Cheng et al., “In situ TEM observation of repeating events of nucleation in epitaxial growth of nano CoSi2 in nanowires of Si,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 2194–2199, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. K. C. Lu, W. W. Wu, H. Ouyang et al., “The influence of surface oxide on the growth of metal/semiconductor nanowires,” Nano Letters, vol. 11, pp. 2753–2758, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. J. Tang, C. Y. Wang, F. Xiu et al., “Single-crystalline Ni2Ge/Ge/Ni2Ge nanowire heterostructure transistors,” Nanotechnology, vol. 21, no. 50, Article ID 505704, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. T. Burchhart, A. Lugstein, Y. J. Hyun, G. Hochleitner, and E. Bertagnolli, “Atomic scale alignment of copper-germanide contacts for ge nanowire metal oxide field effect transistors,” Nano Letters, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 3739–3742, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudikse, D. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature, vol. 40, pp. 57–61, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  97. S. Hu, Y. Kawamura, K. C. Y. Huang et al., “Thermal stability and surface passivation of Ge nanowires coated by epitaxial SiGe shells,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, pp. 1385–1391, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  98. E. Tutuc, J. Appenzeller, M. C. Reuter, and S. Guha, “Realization of a linear germanium nanowire p-n junction,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 2070–2074, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S. Hoffmann, J. Bauer, C. Ronning et al., “Axial p-n junctions realized in silicon nanowires by ion implantation,” Nano Letters, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1341–1344, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. C. Zeiner, A. Lugstein, T. Burchhart et al., “Atypical self-activation of Ga dopant for Ge nanowire devices,” Nano Letters, vol. 11, pp. 3108–3112, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. R. Duffy, M. J. H. Van Dal, B. J. Pawlak et al., “Solid phase epitaxy versus random nucleation and growth in sub- 20 nm wide fin field-effect transistors,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, no. 24, Article ID 241912, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. R. Duffy, M. Shayesteh, B. McCarthy et al., “The curious case of thin-body Ge crystallization,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 99, no. 13, Article ID 131910, 3 pages, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  103. L. Pelaz, L. Marques, M. Aboy, P. Lopez, I. Santos, and R. Duffy, “Atomistic process modeling based on Kinetic Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics for optimization of advanced devices,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM '09), pp. 1–4, 2009, IEDM09-516, 97-4244-5640-6/09.
  104. N. Petkov, R. Kelly, M. Schmidt, and J. D. Holmes, “In situ dynamic TEM studies of Ga-ion implantation, subsequent defects evolution and thermal curing of Ge nanowires,” in Proceedings of the European Microscopy Congress, vol. 10, PS1.10, 2012.
  105. D. J. Milliron, S. Raoux, R. M. Shelby, and J. Jordan-Sweet, “Solution-phase deposition and nanopatterning of GeSbSe phase-change materials,” Nature Materials, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 352–356, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. W. L. Yim, B. Xiang, and J. Wu, “Sublimation of GeTe nanowires and evidence of its size effect studied by in situ TEM,” in , Journal of the American Chemical Society,, vol. 131, pp. 14526–14530, 2009.
  107. J. In, Y. Yoo, J. G. Kim et al., “In situ TEM observation of heterogeneous phase transition of a constrained single-crystalline Ag2Te nanowire,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 4501–4504, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. X. Liu, J. Zhu, C. Jin, L.-M. Peng, D. Tang, and H. Cheng, “In situ electrical measurements of polytypic silver nanowires,” Nanotechnology, vol. 19, Article ID 085711, 6 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. Y. G. Wang, T. H. Wang, X. W. Lin, and V. P. Dravid, “Ohmic contact junction of carbon nanotubes fabricated by in situ electron beam deposition,” Nanotechnology, vol. 17, no. 24, pp. 6011–6015, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. S. Kumar, K. L. Joshi, A. C. T. van Duin, and M. A. Haque, “Can amorphization take place in nanoscale interconnects?” Nanotechnology, vol. 23, no. 9, Article ID 095701, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  111. A. Reguer, F. Bedu, S. Nitsche, D. Chaudanson, B. Detailleur, and H. Dallaporta, “Probing the local temperature by in situ electron microscopy on a heated Si3N4 membrane,” Ultramicroscopy, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 61–66, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. S. Chen, J. Y. Huang, Z. Wang, and K. Kempa, “High-bias-induced structure and the corresponding electronic property changes in carbon nanotubes,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 87, Article ID 263107, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  113. C. H. Jin, J. Y. Wang, Q. Chen, and L. M. Peng, “In situ fabrication and graphitization of amorphous carbon nanowires and their electrical properties,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 11, pp. 5423–5428, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. B. Kang and G. Ceder, “Battery materials for ultrafast charging and discharging,” Nature, vol. 458, no. 7235, pp. 190–193, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. C. K. Chan, H. Peng, G. Liu et al., “High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 31–35, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. K. Karki, E. Epstein, J.-H. Cho et al., “Lithium-assisted electrochemical welding in silicon nanowire battery electrodes,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, pp. 1392–1397, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  117. X. H. Liu, S. Huang, S. T. Picraux, J. Li, T. Zhu, and J. Y. Huang, “Reversible nanopore formation in Ge nanowires during lithiation-delithiation cycling: an in situ transmission electron microscopy study,” Nano Letters, vol. 11, pp. 3991–3997, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  118. X. Wang, D.-M. Tang, H. Li et al., “Revealing the conversion mechanism of CuO nanowires during lithiation-delithiation by in situ transmission electron microscopy,” Chemical Communications, vol. 48, pp. 4812–4814, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  119. Y. Liu, N. S. Hudak, D. L. Huber, S. J. Limmer, J. P. Sullivan, and J. Y. Huang, “In situ transmission electron microscopy observation of pulverization of aluminum nanowires and evolution of the thin surface Al2O3 layers during lithiation-delithiation cycles,” Nano Letters, vol. 11, pp. 4188–4194, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  120. P. Gao, K. Liu, L. Liu et al., “Higher-order harmonic resonances and mechanical properties of individual cadmium sulphide nanowires measured by in situ transmission electron microscopy,” Journal of Electron Microscopy, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 285–289, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. B. Liu, Y. Bando, M. Wang, C. Tang, M. Mitome, and D. Golberg, “Crystallography and elasticity of individual GaN nanotubes,” Nanotechnology, vol. 20, no. 18, Article ID 185705, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. Y. Yue, P. Liu, Z. Zhang, X. Han, and E. Ma, “Approaching the theoretical elastic strain limit in copper nanowires,” Nano Letters, vol. 11, pp. 3151–3155, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar