Table 1: The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND).


1*How soon after you wake up do you smoke your first cigarette?Within 5 minutes3
6–30 minutes2
31–60 minutes1
After 60 minutes0
2Do you find it difficult to refrain from smoking in places where it is forbidden for example church, at the library, in the cinema, and so on?Yes1
3Which cigarette would you hate to give up?The first one in the morning1
All others0
4*How many cigarettes do you smoke a day?10 or less0
31 or more3
5Do you smoke more during the first two hours than during the rest of the day?Yes 1
6Do you smoke if you are so ill that you are in bed most of the day?Yes1

*Items 1 and 4 comprise the HSI (Heaviness of Smoking Index).