Table of Contents
ISRN Infectious Diseases
Volume 2013, Article ID 920806, 6 pages
Research Article

Lesson Learned from the Emergence of Influenza Pandemic H1N1 in 2009 in Indonesia: The Importance of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) Surveillance

1Centre for Biomedical and Basic Technology of Health, NIHRD-MOH, Jl. Percetakan Negara No. 23, Central Jakarta 10560, Indonesia
2Doctoral Program for Biomedical, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jl. Salemba Raya No. 4, Central Jakarta 10430, Indonesia

Received 19 September 2013; Accepted 8 October 2013

Academic Editors: F. Ferrero and N. Uchide

Copyright © 2013 Roselinda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. In 2009 there were outbreaks of influenza pandemic H1N1 in Indonesia that were caused by different virus from the previous circulated H1N1. Further, the influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance plays an important role in the early detection of influenza outbreaks in outpatients. To understand the disease burden of ILI in the community at the time of H1N1 pandemic 2009, a sentinel-based survey was performed. Methods. The nasal and throat swabs were obtained from 20 primary health centers of ILI sentinel in Indonesia in 2009. Identification of virus influenza pandemic H1N1 was carried out by real-time RT-PCR using primers that are specific for influenza A. Results. Out of 3254 ILI cases from community-based ILI surveillance in 2009, 11.03% cases were Influenza A positive and 42.59% cases were influenza pandemic H1N1. The first influenza pandemic HINI case was detected at week 15 in April, a case from the province of Banda Aceh, reaching a peak in August and ending at week 44 in November of 2009. Conclusion. The influenza pandemic H1N1 outbreak was detected in ILI surveillance network in Indonesia. This outbreak lasted for eight months which was the final wave of the influenza pandemic H1N1 in the world.