Table of Contents
ISRN Nanomaterials
Volume 2013, Article ID 941581, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/941581
Review Article

Electronic Nose Based on Nanomaterials: Issues, Challenges, and Prospects

Thin Film Devices Section, Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085, India

Received 25 August 2013; Accepted 16 September 2013

Academic Editors: W. Bao and J. Li

Copyright © 2013 Niranjan S. Ramgir. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. W. Gardner and P. N. Bartlett, Eds., Sensors and Sensory Systems for the Electronic Nose, Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, UK, 1992.
  2. K. Persaud and G. Dodd, “Analysis of discrimination mechanisms in the mammalian olfactory system using a model nose,” Nature, vol. 299, no. 5881, pp. 352–355, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. Röck, N. Barsan, and U. Weimar, “Electronic nose: current status and future trends,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 705–725, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. J. Albert, N. S. Lewis, C. L. Schauer et al., “Cross-reactive chemical sensor arrays,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 2595–2626, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Glatz and K. Bailey-Hill, “Mimicking nature's noses: from receptor deorphaning to olfactory biosensing,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 270–296, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Sankaran, L. R. Khot, and S. Panigrahi, “Biology and applications of olfactory sensing system: a review,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 171-172, pp. 1–17, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  7. M. Peris and L. Escuder-Gilabert, “A 21st century technique for food control: electronic noses,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 638, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. S. Vestergaard, M. Martens, and P. Turkki, “Application of an electronic nose system for prediction of sensory quality changes of a meat product (pizza topping) during storage,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1095–1101, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. L. Gan, Y. B. Che Man, C. P. Tan, I. NorAini, and S. A. H. Nazimah, “Characterisation of vegetable oils by surface acoustic wave sensing electronic nose,” Food Chemistry, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 507–518, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Å. Eriksson, K. P. Waller, K. Svennersten-Sjaunja, J.-E. Haugen, F. Lundby, and O. Lind, “Detection of mastitic milk using a gas-sensor array system (electronic nose),” International Dairy Journal, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1193–1201, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Yu, J. Wang, H. Xiao, and M. Liu, “Quality grade identification of green tea using the eigenvalues of PCA based on the E-nose signals,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 378–382, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. Y. Musatov, V. V. Sysoev, M. Sommer, and I. Kiselev, “Assessment of meat freshness with metal oxide sensor microarray electronic nose: a practical approach,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 99–103, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. Dewettinck, K. van Hege, and W. Verstraete, “The electronic nose as a rapid sensor for volatile compounds in treated domestic wastewater,” Water Research, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 2475–2483, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Zhang, C. Xie, D. Zeng, Q. Zhang, H. Li, and Z. Bi, “A feature extraction method and a sampling system for fast recognition of flammable liquids with a portable E-nose,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 437–443, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Szczurek, P. M. Szecówka, and B. W. Licznerski, “Application of sensor array and neural networks for quantification of organic solvent vapours in air,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 58, no. 1–3, pp. 427–432, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. C. Bastos and N. Magan, “Potential of an electronic nose for the early detection and differentiation between Streptomyces in potable water,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 116, no. 1-2, pp. 151–155, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. Capelli, S. Sironi, P. Céntola, R. del Rosso, and M. Grande, “Electronic noses for the continuous monitoring of odours from a wastewater treatment plant at specific receptors: focus on training methods,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 53–62, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. Z. Panagou, N. Sahgal, N. Magan, and G.-J. E. Nychas, “Table olives volatile fingerprints: potential of an electronic nose for quality discrimination,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 902–907, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Stella, J. N. Barisci, G. Serra, G. G. Wallace, and D. de Rossi, “Characterization of olive oil by an electronic nose based on conducting polymer sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Ulmer, J. Mitrovics, G. Noetzel, U. Weimar, and W. Göpel, “Odours and flavours identified with hybrid modular sensor systems,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 43, no. 1–3, pp. 24–33, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Nakamoto, A. Fukuda, and T. Moriizumi, “Perfume and flavor identification by odor-sensing system using quartz-resonator sensor array and neural-network pattern recognition,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 10, pp. 85–90, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  22. E. H. Oh, H. S. Song, and T. H. Park, “Recent advances in electronic and bioelectronic noses and their biomedical applications,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 48, no. 6-7, pp. 427–437, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. D'Amico, C. Di Natale, R. Paolesse et al., “Olfactory systems for medical applications,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 458–465, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Lamagna, S. Reich, D. Rodriguez, and N. N. Scoccola, “Performance of an e-nose in hops classification,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 278–283, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. Knobloch, W. Schroedl, C. Turner, M. Chambers, and P. Reinhold, “Electronic nose responses and acute phase proteins correlate in blood using a bovine model of respiratory infection,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 81–87, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H.-C. Chang, L. B. Kish, M. D. King, and C. Kwan, “Fluctuation-enhanced sensing of bacterium odors,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 142, no. 2, pp. 429–434, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Z. Zheng and X. Lin, “Study on application of medical diagnosis by electronic nose,” World Science and Technology, vol. 14, pp. 2115–2119, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  28. T. Alizadeh and S. Zeynali, “Electronic nose based on the polymer coated SAW sensors array for the warfare agent simulants classification,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 412–423, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. Matatagui, J. Martí, M. J. Fernández et al., “Chemical warfare agents simulants detection with an optimized SAW sensor array,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 199–205, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. D. Wilson, “Review of electronic-nose technologies and algorithms to detect hazardous chemicals in the environment,” Procedia Technology, vol. 1, pp. 453–463, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. B. Tudu, A. Jana, A. Metla, D. Ghosh, N. Bhattacharyya, and R. Bandyopadhyay, “Electronic nose for black tea quality evaluation by an incremental RBF network,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 90–95, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. H. Beltran, M. A. Duarte-Mermoud, V. A. Soto Vicencio, S. A. Salah, and M. A. Bustos, “Chilean wine classification using volatile organic compounds data obtained with a fast GC analyzer,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 2421–2436, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. A. Ragazzo-Sanchez, P. Chalier, D. Chevalier, M. Calderon-Santoyo, and C. Ghommidh, “Identification of different alcoholic beverages by electronic nose coupled to GC,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. Cozzolino, W. Cynkar, R. Dambergs, and P. Smith, “Two-dimensional correlation analysis of the effect of temperature on the fingerprint of wines analysed by mass spectrometry electronic nose,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 628–634, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. Vera, L. Aceña, J. Guasch, R. Boqué, M. Mestres, and O. Busto, “Characterization and classification of the aroma of beer samples by means of an MS e-nose and chemometric tools,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 399, no. 6, pp. 2073–2081, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. Li, P. Heinemann, and R. Sherry, “Neural network and Bayesian network fusion models to fuse electronic nose and surface acoustic wave sensor data for apple defect detection,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 301–310, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. Zhang, M. Chang, J. Wang, and S. Ye, “Evaluation of peach quality indices using an electronic nose by MLR, QPST and BP network,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 332–338, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Panigrahi, S. Balasubramanian, H. Gu, C. Logue, and M. Marchello, “Neural-network-integrated electronic nose system for identification of spoiled beef,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 135–145, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. V. Y. Musatov, V. V. Sysoev, M. Sommer, and I. Kiselev, “Assessment of meat freshness with metal oxide sensor microarray electronic nose: a practical approach,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 99–103, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. N. E. Barbri, J. Mirhisse, R. Ionescu et al., “An electronic nose system based on a micro-machined gas sensor array to assess the freshness of sardines,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 538–543, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. A. Drake, P. D. Gerard, J. P. Kleinhenz, and W. J. Harper, “Application of an electronic nose to correlate with descriptive sensory analysis of aged Cheddar cheese,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Ampuero and J. O. Bosset, “The electronic nose applied to dairy products: a review,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Orts, E. Llobet, X. Vilanova, J. Brezmes, and X. Correig, “Selective methane detection under varying moisture conditions using static and dynamic sensor signals,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 106–117, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. Llobet, J. Brezmes, X. Vilanova, J. E. Sueiras, and X. Correig, “Qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds using transient and steady-state responses of a thick-film tin oxide gas sensor array,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 41, no. 1–3, pp. 13–21, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. Šundić, S. Marco, A. Perera et al., “Fuzzy inference system for sensor array calibration: prediction of CO and CH4 levels in variable humidity conditions,” Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 103–122, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. B. Kateb, M. A. Ryan, M. L. Homer et al., “Sniffing out cancer using the JPL electronic nose: a pilot study of a novel approach to detection and differentiation of brain cancer,” NeuroImage, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. T5–T9, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. L. García-González and R. Aparicio, “Sensors: from biosensors to the electronic nose,” Grasas y Aceites, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 96–114, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. R. Gutierrez-Osuna, Signal processing and pattern recognition for an electronic nose [Doctoral dissertation], North Carolina State University, 1998.
  49. H.-K. Hong, C. H. Kwon, S.-R. Kim, D. H. Yun, K. Lee, and Y. K. Sung, “Portable electronic nose system with gas sensor array and artificial neural network,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 49–52, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Graves, M. Liwicki, S. Fernández, R. Bertolami, H. Bunke, and J. Schmidhuber, “A novel connectionist system for unconstrained handwriting recognition,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 855–868, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Mitrovics, H. Ulmer, U. Weimar, and W. Göpel, “Modular sensor systems for gas sensing and odor monitoring: the Moses concept,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 307–315, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. Holova, O. Strouf, P. Zak et al., “QSAR of catechol analogs against malignant melanoma using fingerprint descriptors,” Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships, vol. 17, pp. 37–39, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  53. M. Vinaixa, S. Marín, J. Brezmes et al., “Early detection of fungal growth in bakery products by use of an electronic nose based on mass spectrometry,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 20, pp. 6068–6074, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. S. Creaser, J. M. R. Griffiths, C. J. Bramwell, S. Noreen, C. A. Hill, and C. L. P. Thomas, “Ion mobility spectrometry: a review—part 1: structural analysis by mobility measurement,” Analyst, vol. 129, no. 11, pp. 984–994, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. L. Massart, B. G. M. Vandeginste, L. M. C. Buydens, S. de Jong, P. J. Lewi, and J. Smeyers-Verbeke, Handbook of Chemometrics and Qualimetrics, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1998.
  56. F. Fenaille, P. Visani, R. Fumeaux, C. Milo, and P. A. Guy, “Comparison of mass spectrometry-based electronic nose and solid phase microextraction gas chromatography—mass spectrometry technique to assess infant formula oxidation,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 2790–2796, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. J. Staples and S. Viswanathan, “Detection of contrabands in cargo containers using a high-speed gas chromatograph with surface acoustic wave sensor,” Industrial and Engineering Chemical Research, vol. 47, no. 21, pp. 8361–8367, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. S. Armenta, N. M. M. Coelho, R. Roda, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Seafood freshness determination through vapour phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 580, no. 2, pp. 216–222, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. C. Tewari and J. M. K. Irudayaraj, “Floral classification of honey using mid-infrared spectroscopy and surface acoustic wave based z-Nose sensor,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 18, pp. 6955–6966, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. Z. Berna, S. Trowell, W. Cynkar, and D. Cozzolino, “Comparison of metal oxide-based electronic nose and mass spectrometry-based electronic nose for the prediction of red wine spoilage,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 3238–3244, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. O. R. Miranda, C.-C. You, R. Phillips et al., “Array-based sensing of proteins using conjugated polymers,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 129, no. 32, pp. 9856–9857, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. J. Qavi, A. L. Washburn, J.-Y. Byeon, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free technologies for quantitative multiparameter biological analysis,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 394, no. 1, pp. 121–135, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. B. M. Rolfe, “Toward nanometer-scale sensing systems: natural and artificial noses as models for ultra-small, ultra-dense sensing systems,” Advances in Computers, vol. 71, pp. 103–166, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. Henzie, J. E. Barton, C. L. Stender, and T. W. Odom, “Large-area nanoscale patterning: chemistry meets fabrication,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 249–257, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. C. M. Hangarter, M. Bangar, A. Mulchandani, and N. V. Myung, “Conducting polymer nanowires for chemiresistive and FET-based bio/chemical sensors,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 16, pp. 3131–3140, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. Y. Li, F. Qian, J. Xiang, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Materials Today, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 18–27, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. I. Hochbaum and P. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowires for energy conversion,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 527–546, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. R. K. Joshi, Q. Hu, F. Alvi, N. Joshi, and A. Kumar, “Au decorated zinc oxide nanowires for CO sensing,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 113, no. 36, pp. 16199–16202, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. W.-K. Hong, J. I. Sohn, D.-K. Hwang et al., “Tunable electronic transport characteristics of surface-architecture-controlled ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 950–956, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. N. S. Ramgir, Y. Yang, and M. Zacharias, “Nanowire-based sensors,” Small, vol. 6, no. 16, pp. 1705–1722, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. Huang and Q. Wan, “Gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxide one-dimensional nanostructures,” Sensors, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 9903–9924, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Afzal, N. Cioffi, L. Sabbatini, and L. Torsi, “NOx sensors based on semiconducting metal oxide nanostructures: progress and perspectives,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 171-172, pp. 25–42, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. D. K. Aswal and S. K. Gupta, Eds., Science and Technology of Chemiresistive Gas Sensors, Nova Science Publisher, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
  74. N. S. Ramgir, N. Datta, M. Kaur, A. K. Debnath, D. K. Aswal, and S. K. Gupta, “Semiconductor nanowires and heterostructures based gas sensors,” in Nanowires: Properties, Synthesis and Applications, V. Lefevre, Ed., pp. 1–46, Nova Science Publisher, New York, NY, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  75. N. Yamazoe, “Toward innovations of gas sensor technology,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 108, no. 1-2, pp. 2–14, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. G. Bläser, T. Rühl, C. Diehl, M. Ulrich, and D. Kohl, “Nanostructured semiconductor gas sensors to overcome sensitivity limitations due to percolation effects,” Physica A, vol. 266, no. 1–4, pp. 218–223, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. Gurlo, M. Ivanovskaya, N. Bârsan et al., “Grain size control in nanocrystalline In2O3 semiconductor gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 44, no. 1–3, pp. 327–333, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. W. Göpel and K. D. Schierbaum, “SnO2 sensors: current status and future prospects,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 26, no. 1–3, pp. 1–12, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. R. Gross and L. Tagirov, Eds., Nanoscale Devices—Fundamental and Applications, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2006.
  80. Z. L. Wang, “Splendid one-dimensional nanostructures of zinc oxide: a new nanomaterial family for nanotechnology,” ACS Nano, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 1987–1992, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. X. Yan, Z. Li, C. Zou et al., “Renucleation and sequential growth of ZnO complex nano/microstructure: from nano/microrod to ball-shaped cluster,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 1436–1443, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. N. S. Ramgir, V. Rikka, M. Kaur et al., “ZnO nanowires as H2S sensor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Physics of Emerging Functional Materials (PEFM '10), D. K. Aswal and A. K. Debnath, Eds., pp. 322–324, September 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. Z. L. Wang, “Novel nanostructures of ZnO for nanoscale photonics, optoelectronics, piezoelectricity, and sensing,” Applied Physics A, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 7–15, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. C. N. R. Rao, F. L. Deepak, G. Gundiah, and A. Govindaraj, “Inorganic nanowires,” Progress in Solid State Chemistry, vol. 31, no. 1-2, pp. 5–147, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. L. E. Greene, B. D. Yuhas, M. Law, D. Zitoun, and P. Yang, “Solution-grown zinc oxide nanowires,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 19, pp. 7535–7543, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  86. M. Law, J. Goldberger, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowires and nanotubes,” Annual Review of Materials Research, vol. 34, pp. 83–122, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. R. L. Vander Wal, G. W. Hunter, J. C. Xu, M. J. Kulis, G. M. Berger, and T. M. Ticich, “Metal-oxide nanostructure and gas-sensing performance,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 113–119, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. G. Korotcenkova and B. K. Cho, “The role of grain size on the thermal instability of nanostructured metal oxides used in gas sensor applications and approaches for grain-size stabilization,” Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 167–208, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  89. C. Xu, J. Tamaki, N. Miura, and N. Yamazoe, “Stabilization of SnO2 ultrafine particles by additives,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 963–971, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. A. Tricoli, M. Graf, and S. E. Pratsinis, “Optimal doping for enhanced SnO2 sensitivity and thermal stability,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 1969–1976, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. G. Korotcenkov, B. K. Cho, M. Nazarov, D. Y. Noh, and E. V. Kolesnikova, “Cathodoluminescence studies of un-doped and (Cu, Fe, and Co)-doped tin dioxide films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1123–1131, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. B. Chitara, D. J. Late, S. B. Krupanidhi, and C. N. R. Rao, “Room-temperature gas sensors based on gallium nitride nanoparticles,” Solid State Communications, vol. 150, no. 41-42, pp. 2053–2056, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. A. A. Tomchenko, G. P. Harmer, B. T. Marquis, and J. W. Allen, “Semiconducting metal oxide sensor array for the selective detection of combustion gases,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 93, no. 1–3, pp. 126–134, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. K. D. Mitzner, J. Sternhagen, and D. W. Galipeau, “Development of a micromachined hazardous gas sensor array,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 93, no. 1–3, pp. 92–99, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. J. Wollenstein, J. A. Plaza, C. Cane, Y. Min, H. Botttner, and H. L. Tuller, “A novel single chip thin film metal oxide array,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 93, no. 1–3, pp. 350–355, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. B. W. Mwakikunga, S. Motshekga, L. Sikhwivhilu et al., “A classification and ranking system on the H2 gas sensing capabilities of nanomaterials based on proposed coefficients of sensor performance and sensor efficiency equations,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 184, pp. 170–178, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. A. Liu, “Towards development of chemosensors and biosensors with metal-oxide-based nanowires or nanotubes,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 167–177, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. D. James, S. M. Scott, Z. Ali, and W. T. O’Hare, “Review chemical sensors for electronic nose systems,” Microchimica Acta, vol. 149, no. 1-2, pp. 1–17, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. J. Wang and X. Qu, “Recent progress in nanosensors for sensitive detection of biomolecules,” Nanoscale, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 3589–3600, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  100. V. V. Sysoev, E. Strelcov, M. Sommer et al., “Single-nanobelt electronic nose: engineering and tests of the simplest analytical element,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 4487–4494, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. Y. Hu, H. Lee, S. Kim, and M. Yun, “A highly selective chemical sensor array based on nanowire/nanostructure for gas identification,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 181, pp. 424–431, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. S. Liu and X. Guo, “Carbon nanomaterials field-effect-transistor-based Biosensors,” NPG Asia Materials, vol. 4, p. e23, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. Y. Ohno, K. Maehashi, and K. Matsumoto, “Chemical and biological sensing applications based on graphene field-effect transistors,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1727–1730, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. X. Huang, Z. Yin, S. Wu et al., “Graphene-based materials: synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications,” Small, vol. 7, no. 14, pp. 1876–1902, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov et al., “Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene,” Nature Materials, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 652–655, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. M. Baik, M. Zielke, M. H. Kim, K. L. Turner, A. M. Wodtke, and M. Moskovits, “Tin-oxide-nanowire-based electronic nose using heterogeneous catalysis as a functionalization strategy,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 3117–3122, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. V. V. Sysoev, J. Goschnick, T. Schneider, E. Strelcov, and A. Kolmakov, “A gradient microarray electronic nose based on percolating SnO2 nanowire sensing elements,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 3182–3188, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. C. M. Lieber, “Nanoscale science and technology: building a big future from small things,” MRS Bulletin, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 486–491, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. A. M. Morales and C. M. Lieber, “A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires,” Science, vol. 279, no. 5348, pp. 208–211, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. V. Schmidt, J. V. Wittemann, S. Senz, and U. Gösele, “Silicon nanowires: a review on aspects of their growth and their electrical properties,” Advanced Materials, vol. 21, no. 25-26, pp. 2681–2702, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  111. Y. F. Zhang, Y. H. Tang, N. Wang et al., “Silicon nanowires prepared by laser ablation at high temperature,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 72, no. 15, pp. 1835–1837, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. Y. Wang, T. Wang, P. Da, M. Xu, H. Wu, and G. Zheng, “Silicon nanowires for biosensing, energy storage, and conversion,” Advanced Materials, vol. 25, no. 37, pp. 5177–5195, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. F. J. Ibañez and F. P. Zamborini, “Chemiresistive sensing with chemically modified metal and alloy nanoparticles,” Small, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 174–202, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. H. Jans and Q. Huo, “Gold nanoparticle-enabled biological and chemical detection and analysis,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 2849–2866, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. K. Saha, S. S. Agasti, C. Kim, X. Li, and V. M. Rotello, “Gold nanoparticles in chemical and biological sensing,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 112, no. 5, pp. 2739–2779, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  116. Y. Y. Broza, R. Kremer, U. Tisch et al., “A nanomaterial-based breath test for short-term follow-up after lung tumor resection,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 15–21, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  117. N. Peled, O. Barash, U. Tisch et al., “Volatile fingerprints of cancer specific genetic mutations,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 758–766, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  118. H. Kong, Y. Lu, H. Wang, F. Wen, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Protein discrimination using fluorescent gold nanoparticles on plasmonic substrates,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 84, no. 10, pp. 4258–4261, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  119. U. Tisch and H. Haick, “Arrays of nanomaterial-based sensors for breath testing,” in Volatile Biomarkers: Non-Invasive Diagnosis in Physiology and Medicine, chapter 16, pp. 301–323, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  120. O. Barash, N. Peled, F. R. Hirsch, and H. Haick, “Sniffing the unique “odor print” of non-small-cell lung cancer with gold nanoparticles,” Small, vol. 5, no. 22, pp. 2618–2624, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. M. Y. Bashouti, K. Sardashti, S. W. Schmitt et al., “Oxide-free hybrid silicon nanowires: from fundamentals to applied nanotechnology,” Progress in Surface Science, vol. 88, pp. 39–60, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  122. O. Barash, N. Peled, U. Tisch, P. A. Bunn Jr., F. R. Hirsch, and H. Haick, “Classification of lung cancer histology by gold nanoparticle sensors,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, vol. 8, pp. 580–589, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. G. Peng, M. Hakim, Y. Y. Broza et al., “Detection of lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers from exhaled breath using a single array of nanosensors,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 542–551, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. U. Tisch, S. Billan, M. Ilouze, M. Phillips, N. Peled, and H. Haick, “Volatile organic compounds in the exhaled breath as biomarkers for the early detection and screening of lung cancer,” CML—Lung Cancer, vol. 5, pp. 107–117, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  125. F. Patolsky, G. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire devices for ultrasensitive, label-free, real-time detection of biological and chemical species,” Nature Protocols, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 1711–1724, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. G. Zheng and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire biosensors for label-free, real-time, ultrasensitive protein detection,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 790, pp. 223–237, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. C. M. Lieber, “Semiconductor nanowires: a platform for nanoscience and nanotechnology,” MRS Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1052–1063, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. A. Mulchandani and N. V. Myung, “Conducting polymer nanowires-based label-free biosensors,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 502–508, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. H. Yoon, S. Ko, and J. Jang, “Field-effect-transistor sensor based on enzyme-functionalized polypyrrole nanotubes for glucose detection,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 112, no. 32, pp. 9992–9997, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. J. A. Arter, D. K. Taggart, T. M. McIntire, R. M. Penner, and G. A. Weiss, “Virus-PEDOT nanowires for biosensing,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 4858–4862, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. H. Kong, D. Liu, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Protein sensing and cell discrimination using a sensor array based on nanomaterial-assisted chemiluminescence,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 1867–1870, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. W. Niu, H. Kong, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “A chemiluminescence sensor array for discriminating natural sugars and artificial sweeteners,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 402, no. 1, pp. 389–395, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. W. Niu, “A chemiluminescence sensor array based on nanomaterials for discrimination of teas,” Luminescence, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 239–243, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  134. T. Asefa, C. T. Duncan, and K. K. Sharma, “Recent advances in nanostructured chemosensors and biosensors,” Analyst, vol. 134, no. 10, pp. 1980–1990, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. M. Castro, B. Kumar, J. F. Feller, Z. Haddi, A. Amari, and B. Bouchikhi, “Novel e-nose for the discrimination of volatile organic biomarkers with an array of carbon nanotubes (CNT) conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPC) sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 213–219, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. T. Asefa, C. T. Duncan, and K. K. Sharma, “Recent advances in nanostructured chemosensors and biosensors,” Analyst, vol. 134, no. 10, pp. 1980–1990, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. C.-C. You, O. R. Miranda, B. Gider et al., “Detection and identification of proteins using nanoparticle-fluorescent polymer ‘chemical nose’ sensors,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 318–323, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. Y. T. Yang, C. Callegari, X. L. Feng, K. L. Ekinci, and M. L. Roukes, “Zeptogram-scale nanomechanical mass sensing,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 583–586, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. C. Guthy, M. Belov, A. Janzen et al., “Large-scale arrays of nanomechanical sensors for biomolecular fingerprinting,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 187, pp. 111–117, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  140. Y. K. Yoo, M.-S. Chae, J. Y. Kang, T. S. Kim, K. S. Hwang, and J. H. Lee, “Multifunctionalized cantilever systems for electronic nose applications,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 84, no. 19, pp. 8240–8245, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  141. J. Yinon, “Peer reviewed: detection of explosives by electronic noses,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 98A–105A, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  142. H. P. Lang, M. K. Baller, R. Berger et al., “An artificial nose based on a micromechanical cantilever array,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 393, no. 1–3, pp. 59–65, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. J. Sarah Caygill, F. Davis, and S. P. J. Higson, “Current trends in explosive detection techniques,” Talanta, vol. 88, pp. 14–29, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. G. Daqi and C. Wei, “Simultaneous estimation of odor classes and concentrations using an electronic nose with function approximation model ensembles,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 584–594, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. L. Zhang, F. Tian, C. Kadri, G. Pei, H. Li, and L. Pan, “Gases concentration estimation using heuristics and bio-inspired optimization models for experimental chemical electronic nose,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 760–770, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. D. Gao, F. Liu, and J. Wang, “Quantitative analysis of multiple kinds of volatile organic compounds using hierarchical models with an electronic nose,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 578–586, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. C. Distante, N. Ancona, and P. Siciliano, “Support vector machines for olfactory signals recognition,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 30–39, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. C. M. Bishop, Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1995.
  149. J. S. Taylor and N. Cristianini, Kernel Methods for Pattern Analysis, Cambridge University Press, London, UK, 2004.
  150. N. Ramgir, N. Datta, M. Kaur et al., “Metal oxide nanowires for chemiresistive gas sensors: issues, challenges and prospects,” Colloids and Surfaces A, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  151. H. Haick and D. Cahen, “Making contact: connecting molecules electrically to the macroscopic world,” Progress in Surface Science, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 217–261, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. D. R. Kim and X. Zheng, “Numerical characterization and optimization of the microfluidics for nanowire biosensors,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 3233–3237, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. P. X. Gao, Y. Ding, and Z. L. Wang, “Crystallographic orientation-aligned ZnO nanorods grown by a tin catalyst,” Nano Letters, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1315–1320, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. J. B. Baxter and E. S. Aydil, “Epitaxial growth of ZnO nanowires on a- and c-plane sapphire,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 274, no. 3-4, pp. 407–411, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. D. Wang, R. Zhu, Z. Zhou, and X. Ye, “Controlled assembly of zinc oxide nanowires using dielectrophoresis,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, no. 10, Article ID 103110, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. C. S. Lao, J. Liu, P. Gao et al., “ZnO nanobelt/nanowire schottky diodes formed by dielectrophoresis alignment across au electrodes,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 263–266, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. J. Suehiro, N. Nakagawa, S.-I. Hidaka et al., “Dielectrophoretic fabrication and characterization of a ZnO nanowire-based UV photosensor,” Nanotechnology, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 2567–2573, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. D. Zhang, S. Wang, K. Cheng et al., “Controllable fabrication of patterned ZnO nanorod arrays: investigations into the impacts on their morphology,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 2969–2977, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  159. J.-W. Liu, H.-W. Liang, and S.-H. Yu, “Macroscopic-scale assembled nanowire thin films and their functionalities,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 112, no. 8, pp. 4770–4799, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  160. O. Assad, A. M. Leshansky, B. Wang, T. Stelzner, S. Christiansen, and H. Haick, “Spray-coating route for highly aligned and large-scale arrays of nanowires,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 4702–4712, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  161. D. Tsivion, M. Schvartzman, R. Popovitz-Biro, and E. Joselevich, “Guided growth of horizontal ZnO nanowires with controlled orientations on flat and faceted sapphire surfaces,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, pp. 6433–6445, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  162. X. Liu, Y.-Z. Long, L. Liao, X. Duan, and Z. Fan, “Large-scale integration of semiconductor nanowires for high-performance flexible electronics,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1888–1900, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. C. Kallesøe, C.-Y. Wen, T. J. Booth et al., “In situ tem creation and electrical characterization of nanowire devices,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 2965–2970, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  164. A. Pevzner, Y. Engel, R. Elnathan, A. Tsukernik, Z. Barkay, and F. Patolsky, “Confinement-guided shaping of semiconductor nanowires and nanoribbons: ‘writing with nanowires’,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 7–12, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. S.-Y. Min, T.-S. Kim, B. J. Kim et al., “Large-scale organic nanowire lithography and electronics,” Nature Communications, vol. 4, article 1773, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  166. M. Heurlin, M. H. Magnusson, D. Lindgren et al., “Continuous gas-phase synthesis of nanowires with tunable properties,” Nature, vol. 492, pp. 90–94, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  167. Z. Fan, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi et al., “Toward the development of printable nanowire electronics and sensors,” Advanced Materials, vol. 21, no. 37, pp. 3730–3743, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. C. Bambang Dwi Kuncoro, Armansyah, N. H. Saad, A. Jaffar, C. Y. Low, and S. Kasolang, “Wireless e-nose sensor node: state of the art,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 41, pp. 1405–1411, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  169. Z. L. Wang and J. Song, “Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays,” Science, vol. 312, no. 5771, pp. 243–246, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. S. J. Park, O. S. Kwon, S. H. Lee, H. S. Song, T. H. Park, and J. Jang, “Ultrasensitive flexible graphene based field-effect transistor (FET)-type bioelectronic nose,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, pp. 5082–5090, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  171. S. S. Chou, M. De, J. Luo, V. M. Rotello, J. Huang, and V. P. Dravid, “Nanoscale graphene oxide (nGO) as artificial receptors: implications for biomolecular interactions and sensing,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 134, no. 40, pp. 16725–16733, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  172. T. Kinkeldei, C. Zysset, K. H. Cherenack, and G. Troster, “A textile integrated sensor system for monitoring humidity and temperature,” in Proceedings of the 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (TRANSDUCERS '11), pp. 1156–1159, June 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. T. Kinkeldei, C. Zysset, N. Münzenrieder, and G. Tröster, “An electronic nose on flexible substrates integrated into a smart textile,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 174, pp. 81–86, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  174. J.-W. Han, B. Kim, J. Li, and M. Meyyappan, “A carbon nanotube based ammonia sensor on cotton textile,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 102, Article ID 193104, 4 pages, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  175. S. Park and S. Jayaraman, “Smart textile-based wearable biomedical systems: a transition plan for research to reality,” IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 86–92, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  176. S. H. Lee, O. S. Kwon, H. S. Song et al., “Mimicking the human smell sensing mechanism with an artificial nose platform,” Biomaterials, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1722–1729, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. W. Yoon, S. H. Lee, O. S. Kwon et al., “Polypyrrole nanotubes conjugated with human olfactory receptors: high-performance transducers for FET-Type bioelectronic noses,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 48, no. 15, pp. 2755–2758, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. G. Sberveglieri, I. Concina, E. Comini, M. Falasconi, M. Ferroni, and V. Sberveglieri, “Synthesis and integration of tin oxide nanowires into an electronic nose,” Vacuum, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 532–535, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. V. V. Sysoev, B. K. Button, K. Wepsiec, S. Dmitriev, and A. Kolmakov, “Toward the nanoscopic “electronic nose”: hydrogen vs carbon monoxide discrimination with an array of individual metal oxide nano- and mesowire sensors,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1584–1588, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. B. R. Goldsmith, J. J. Mitala Jr., J. Josue et al., “Biomimetic chemical sensors using nanoelectronic readout of olfactory receptor proteins,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 5408–5416, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. S. H. Lee, H. J. Jin, H. S. Song, S. Hong, and T. H. Park, “Bioelectronic nose with high sensitivity and selectivity using chemically functionalized carbon nanotube combined with human olfactory receptor,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 157, no. 4, pp. 467–472, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. Q. Zhang, C. Xie, S. Zhang et al., “Identification and pattern recognition analysis of Chinese liquors by doped nano ZnO gas sensor array,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 370–376, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. J. Gong, Q. Chen, W. Fei, and S. Seal, “Micromachined nanocrystalline SnO2 chemical gas sensors for electronic nose,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 117–125, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. A. W. Snow, H. Wohltjen, and N. L. Jarvis, “MIME chemical vapor microsensors,” in NRL Review, J. D. Bultman, Ed., pp. 45–55, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  185. E. Chevallier, E. Scorsone, and P. Bergonzo, “Modified diamond nanoparticles as sensitive coatings for chemical SAW sensors,” Procedia Chemistry, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 943–946, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. U. Tisch and H. Haick, “Arrays of nanomaterial-based sensors for breath testing,” in Volatile Biomarkers: Non-Invasive Diagnosis in Physiology and Medicine, chapter 16, pp. 301–323, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  187. Y. Engel, R. Elnathan, A. Pevzner, G. Davidi, E. Flaxer, and F. Patolsky, “Supersensitive detection of explosives by silicon nanowire arrays,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 49, no. 38, pp. 6830–6835, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. C. Wongchoosuk, A. Wisitsoraat, A. Tuantranont, and T. Kerdcharoen, “Portable electronic nose based on carbon nanotube-SnO2 gas sensors and its application for detection of methanol contamination in whiskeys,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 392–399, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. B. Kumar, J.-F. Feller, M. Castro, and J. Lu, “Conductive bio-Polymer nano-Composites (CPC): chitosan-carbon nanotube transducers assembled via spray layer-by-layer for volatile organic compound sensing,” Talanta, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 908–915, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. S. Dragonieri, J. T. Annema, R. Schot et al., “An electronic nose in the discrimination of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and COPD,” Lung Cancer, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 166–170, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus