Table of Contents
ISRN Parasitology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 960168, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/960168
Research Article

Impact of Eighteen-Year Varied Compliance to Onchocerciasis Treatment with Ivermectin in Sentinel Savannah Agrarian Communities in Kaduna State of Nigeria

1Nigeria Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR), P. M. B. 2077, Kaduna 800001, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
3Department of Biological Sciences, ABU, Zaria, Kaduna State 810000, Nigeria
4Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State 920001, Nigeria
5National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Idun, Abuja 900102, Nigeria

Received 15 May 2013; Accepted 2 June 2013

Academic Editors: A. P. Dash and R. Kalyanasundaram

Copyright © 2013 Hudu O. Osue et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Baseline and impact assessment data were generated in 1994 ( ) and 2011 ( ) from 6 sentinel villages with generalized onchocerciasis. Only volunteers and a cohort were screened at both visits. Each village had received 11 (64.7%) annual treatments and 92.6%, range 88.7–100%, treatment compliance. Overall mean number of treatment was 2.9 ± 1.6 with a range 2.0 ± 1.2–3.3 ± 0.6. Significant decreases in skin microfilaria prevalence from 201 (38%) to 0 (0%), palpable nodule from 77 (15%) to 4 (0.7%), dermal changes from 51 (9.6%) to 2 (0.04%), optic nerve disease from 24 (4.5%) to 4 (2.0%), and onchocercal inducible ocular lesions from 31 (5.8%) to 12 (2.0%) were recorded, , ( -test of unpaired data). Cases of glaucoma, 8 (1.4%), and blindness, 6 (1.05%), remained unchanged. Visual acuity ≥6/24 in one or both eyes, 198 (33.45%); cataract, 169 (28.5%); pterygium 157 (26.5%); and acute senilis, 165 (27.9%), were significantly increased and positively correlated with increase in age ( ). Dissected parous Simulium damnosum caught ( ) were without infective third stage larva. Active onchocerciasis transmission seems halted despite varied compliance to long-term ivermectin treatment. We recommend continued surveillance and targeted treatment of controlled and hypoendemic areas.