Table of Contents
ISRN Communications and Networking
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 985401, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/985401
Research Article

Dual-Polarized Synthetic Antenna Array for GNSS Handheld Applications

1Position Location and Navigation (PLAN) Group, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4
2Department of Math, Physics and Engineering, Mount Royal University, Calgary, AB, Canada T3E 6K6

Received 26 September 2012; Accepted 18 December 2012

Academic Editors: A. Maaref and G. Mazzini

Copyright © 2013 V. Dehghanian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. E. Corazza, C. Caini, A. Vanelli-Coralli, and A. Polydoros, “DS-CDMA code acquisition in the presence of correlated fading—part I: theoretical aspects,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1160–1168, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Caini, G. E. Corazza, and A. Vanelli-Coralli, “DS-CDMA code acquisition in the presence of correlated fading—part II: application to cellular networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 1397–1407, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, Prentice Hall, 2nd edition, 2002.
  4. J. Nielsen, S. K. Shanmugam, M. U. Mahfuz, and G. Lachapelle, “Enhanced detection of weak GNSS signals using spatial combining,” Navigation, Journal of the Institute of Navigation, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 83–95, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Broumandan, J. Nielsen, and G. Lachapelle, “Indoor GNSS signal acquisition performance using a synthetic antenna array,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 1337–1350, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. K. Holmes and C. C. Chen, “Acquisition time performance of PN spread-spectrum systems,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 778–784, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Watson, G. Lachapelle, and R. Klukas, “Testing oscillator stability as a limiting factor in extreme high-sensitivity GPS applications,” in Proceedings of the European Navigation Conference, pp. 1–20, Manchester, UK, May 2006.
  8. B. Friedlander and S. Scherzer, “Beamforming versus transmit diversity in the downlink of a cellular communications system,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1023–1034, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Hyeon, Y. Yun, H. Kim, and S. Choi, “Phase diversity for an antenna-array system with a short interelement separation,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 206–214, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. G. Brennan, “Linear diversity combining techniques,” in Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE '59), vol. 47, pp. 1075–1102, June 1959.
  11. J. S. Colburn, Y. Rahmat-Samii, M. A. Jensen, and G. J. Pottie, “Evaluation of personal communications dual-antenna handset diversity performance,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 737–746, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. C. Jakes, Microwave Mobile Communications, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 1974.
  13. W. C. Y. Lee, Mobile Communication Engineering, McGraw-Hill, 2nd edition, 1997.
  14. A. M. D. Turkmani, A. A. Arowojolu, P. A. Jefford, and C. J. Kellett, “An experimental evaluation of the performance of two-branch space and polarization diversity schemes at 1800 MHz,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 318–326, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. M. Narayanan, K. Atanassov, V. Stoiljkovic, and G. R. Kadambi, “Polarization diversity measurements and analysis for antenna configurations at 1800 MHz,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1795–1810, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. B. Dietrich, K. Dietze, J. R. Nealy, and W. L. Stutzman, “Spatial, polarization, and pattern diversity for wireless handheld terminals,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 1271–1281, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Zaheri, A. Broumandan, V. Dehgahanian, and G. Lachapelle, “Detection performance of polarization and spatial diversity for indoor GNSS applications,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2012, Article ID 879142, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. A. Broumandan, J. Nielsen, and G. Lachapelle, “Signal detection performance in rayleigh fading environments with a moving antenna,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 4, pp. 117–129, April 2010.
  19. S. Stergiopoulos and H. Urban, “A new passive synthetic aperture technique for towed arrays,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 16–25, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. V. Dehghanian, J. Nielsen, and G. Lachapelle, “Combined spatial-polarization correlation function for indoor multipath environments,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 9, pp. 950–953, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. V. Dehghanian, J. Nielsen, and G. Lachapelle, “Merger of polarization and spatial diversity by moving a pair of orthogonally polarized dipoles,” in Proceedings of the 23rd Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE '10), Calgary, Canada, May 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. V. Dehghanian, M. Zaheri, J. Nielsen, and G. Lachapelle, “Dual-polarized synthetic array for indoor GNSS handheld applications,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS'10), pp. 661–665, September 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. L. VanTrees, Detection Estimation and Modulation Theory: Part IV, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2002.
  24. D. A. Hill and J. M. Ladbury, “Spatial-correlation functions of fields and energy density in a reverberation chamber,” IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 95–101, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Friedlander and S. Scherzer, “Beamforming versus transmit diversity in the downlink of a cellular communications system,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1023–1034, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Kay, Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing: Detection Theory, Prentice Hall, 1993.
  27. W. C. Y. Lee, “Estimate of local average power of a mobile radio signal,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 22–27, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Y. Seidel and T. S. Rappaport, “914 MHz path loss prediction models for indoor wireless communications in multifloored buildings,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 207–217, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus