Table of Contents
ISRN Neurology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 989583, 9 pages
Clinical Study

Alzheimer’s Disease: Screening Biomarkers Using Frequency Doubling Technology Visual Field

Vision Care, 62 Forest Avenue, Quincy, MA 02169, USA

Received 2 July 2013; Accepted 6 August 2013

Academic Editors: C. Lang and D. Schiffer

Copyright © 2013 Denise A. Valenti. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study was to investigate the feasibility of frequency doubling technology (FDT) visual field testing in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in order to identify early biomarkers of AD in patients already diagnosed with AD and compare the findings to participants not having Alzheimer’s disease. This biomarker would be useful in a battery of tests for the early identification of those with AD. It was not the intent to correlate the visual system biomarker with severity of disease, but to determine if the biomarker was present in pass or fail screening criteria. The study showed with very strong significance that the FDT can identify biomarkers of those with AD compared to an age-matched population that does not have AD. FDT is a simple test to take and administer and has been used to screen for eye and retinal diseases such as glaucoma, retinal macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. The results obtained in the FDT readout are analyzed and compared to the age normative database within the system. The FDT ability to screen for AD biomarker in the visual system was significant in those with AD compared to the controls, and the deficits were not related to any ocular pathology.