Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014, Article ID 128120, 3 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/128120
Research Article

False-Positive Clostridium difficile in Negative-Control Reactions Peak and Then Decrease with Repetitive Refrigeration of Immunoassay

1Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14580, USA
2Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
3Department of Clinical Studies, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1

Received 14 May 2014; Accepted 25 June 2014; Published 11 September 2014

Academic Editor: Isabel Gómez

Copyright © 2014 Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Toltzis, M. M. Nerandzic, E. Saade et al., “High proportion of false-positive Clostridium difficile enzyme immunoassays for toxin A and B in pediatric patients,” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 175–179, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. D. Wilkins and D. M. Lyerly, “Clostridium difficile testing: after 20 years, still challenging,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 531–534, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. Planche, A. Aghaizu, R. Holliman et al., “Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection by toxin detection kits: a systematic review,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 777–784, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Hanvanich, R. Viscidi, B. E. Laughon, J. G. Bartlett, and R. H. Yolken, “Stool desorbing activity: a possible cause of false-positive reactions in competitive enzyme immunoassays,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 184–188, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. J. Kricka, “Interferences in immunoassay—still a threat,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1037–1038, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Lipsitch, E. Tchetgen Tchetgen, and T. Cohen, “Negative controls: a tool for detecting confounding and bias in observational studies,” Epidemiology, vol. 21, pp. 383–388, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Martin, L. P. Abbott, D. E. Low, B. Willey, M. Mulvey, and J. S. Weese, “Genotypic investigation of Clostridium difficile in Prince Edward Island,” Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 409–412, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Martin, B. Willey, D. E. Low et al., “Characterization of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from patients in Ontario, Canada, from 2004 to 2006,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 2999–3004, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Scott Weese, H. R. Staempfli, and J. F. Prescott, “Survival of Clostridium difficile and its toxins in equine feces: implications for diagnostic test selection and interpretation,” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 332–336, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Rodriguez-Palacios, H. R. Stämpfli, T. Duffield et al., “Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes in calves, Canada,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1730–1736, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Techlab, “C. DIFFICILE TOX A/B II Catalog T5015 product insert,” 2014, http://www.techlab.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/t5015insert_rev_0308.pdf.
  12. S. M. Novak-Weekley and M. H. Hollingsworth, “Comparison of the premier toxin A and B assay and the TOX A/B II assay for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 575–578, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Meridian, “Premier toxin A and B catalog 616096 package insert revised 4/09,” 2014, http://www.meridianbioscience.com/Content/Assets/Files/3.1.3%20%20C.%20difficile%20Testing/Package-Insert-Premier-Toxins-A-and-B.pdf .
  14. T. D. Planche and M. H. Wilcox, “Two-step testing for C. difficile: no answers yet,” Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 325–326, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Freeman and M. H. Wilcox, “The effects of storage conditions on viability of Clostridium difficile vegetative cells and spores and toxin activity in human faeces,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 126–128, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus