Table of Contents
ISRN Neurology
Volume 2014, Article ID 151379, 7 pages
Research Article

Cognitive Impairment in Relapsing Remitting and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Efficacy of a Computerized Cognitive Screening Battery

1Neuropsychology Section, Department of Neurology, University of Patras Medical School, 265 04 Patras, Greece
2Department of Neurology, Essex Centre for Neurological Sciences, Queen’s Hospital, Romford, RM70AG, UK
3Hellenic Open University, 262 22 Patras, Greece

Received 4 January 2014; Accepted 2 February 2014; Published 13 March 2014

Academic Editors: P. Annunziata and Y. Ohyagi

Copyright © 2014 Athanasios Papathanasiou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To investigate the pattern of cognitive impairment in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients using a computerized battery. Methods. RRMS patients , SPMS patients , and controls were assessed by Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) computerized battery, Trail Making Tests (TMT) A and B, and semantic and phonological verbal fluency tasks. Results. The overall prevalence of cognitive dysfunction was 53.75% (RRMS 38%, SPMS 80%). RRMS patients differed from controls with large effect size on reaction time, medium effect size on TMT A and small on TMT B, phonological verbal fluency, composite memory, psychomotor speed, and cognitive flexibility. SPMS patients differed from controls in all neuropsychological measures (except complex attention) with large effect sizes on TMT A and B, phonological verbal fluency, composite memory, psychomotor speed, reaction time, and cognitive flexibility. Between patient groups, medium effect sizes were present on TMT B and psychomotor speed, while small effect sizes were present on composite memory and processing speed. Conclusion. CNS VS is sensitive in detecting cognitive impairment in RRMS and SPMS patients. Significant impairment in episodic memory, executive function, and processing speed were identified, with gradual increment of the frequency as disease progresses.