Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014, Article ID 192097, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/192097
Research Article

Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus for Investigating Closed-Loop Control of Ankle Joint Muscle Contractions during Functional Electrical Stimulation

1Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3G9
2Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network, 520 Sutherland Drive, Toronto, ON, Canada M4G 3V9
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, 4-9 Mechanical Engineering Building, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2G8
4Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital, Alberta Health Services, 10230-111 Avenue, Edmonton, AB, Canada T5G 0B7
5Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1

Received 13 June 2014; Revised 28 August 2014; Accepted 8 September 2014; Published 29 October 2014

Academic Editor: Silvia Conforto

Copyright © 2014 John F. Tan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. J. Abbas and H. J. Chizeck, “Feedback control of coronal plane hip angle in paraplegic subjects using functional neuromuscular stimulation,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 687–698, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. Gollee, K. J. Hunt, and D. E. Wood, “New Results in Feedback Control of Unsupported Standing in Palaplegia,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 73–80, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. Holderbaum, K. J. Hunt, and H. Gollee, “H robust control design for unsupported paraplegic standing: experimental evaluation,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1211–1222, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. J. Hunt, H. Gollee, and R.-P. Jaime, “Control of paraplegic ankle joint stiffness using FES while standing,” Medical Engineering and Physics, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 541–555, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R.-P. Jaime, Z. Matjačić, and K. J. Hunt, “Paraplegic standing supported by FES-controlled ankle stiffness,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 239–248, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. E. Johnston, B. T. Smith, R. R. Betz, and M. J. Mulcahey, “Implanted functional electrical stimulation for upright moility in pediatric spinal cord injury: a follow-up report,” Spinal Cord, vol. 41, pp. 144–152, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  7. J.-Y. Kim, M. R. Popovic, and J. K. Mills, “Dynamic modeling and torque estimation of FES-assisted arm-free standing for paraplegics,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 46–54, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J.-Y. Kim, J. K. Mills, A. H. Vette, and M. R. Popovic, “Optimal combination of minimum degrees of freedom to be actuated in the lower limbs to facilitate arm-free paraplegic standing,” Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, vol. 129, no. 6, pp. 838–847, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Kobetic, R. J. Triolo, J. P. Uhlir et al., “Implanted functional electrical stimulation system for mobility in paraplegia: a follow-up case report,” IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 390–398, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Z. Matjacic and T. Bajd, “Arm-free paraplegic standing—part I: control model synthesis and simulation,” IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 125–138, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Z. Matjacic and T. Bajd, “Arm-free paraplegic standing, part II: experimental results,” IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 139–150, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. K. Mushahwar, P. L. Jacobs, R. A. Normann, R. J. Triolo, and N. Kleitman, “New functional electrical stimulation approaches to standing and walking,” Journal of Neural Engineering, vol. 4, no. 3, article S05, pp. S181–S197, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. H. Vette, K. Masani, and M. R. Popovic, “Implementation of a physiologically identified PD feedback controller for regulating the active ankle torque during quiet stance,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 235–243, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. H. Vette, K. Masani, J.-Y. Kim, and M. R. Popovic, “Closed-loop control of functional electrical stimulation-assisted arm-free standing in individuals with spinal cord injury: a feasibility study,” Neuromodulation, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 22–32, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. L. Lynch and M. R. Popovic, “A comparison of closed-loop control algorithms for regulating electrically stimulated knee movements in individuals with spinal cord injury,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 539–548, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. H. Gage, D. A. Winter, J. S. Frank, and A. L. Adkin, “Kinematic and kinetic validity of the inverted pendulum model in quiet standing,” Gait and Posture, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 124–132, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Masani, D. G. Sayenko, and A. H. Vette, “What triggers the continuous muscle activity during upright standing?” Gait and Posture, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 72–77, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. I. D. Loram, S. M. Kelly, and M. Lakie, “Human balancing of an inverted pendulum: is sway size controlled by ankle impedance?” Journal of Physiology, vol. 532, no. 3, pp. 879–891, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. I. D. Loram and M. Lakie, “Direct measurement of human ankle stiffness during quiet standing: the intrinsic mechanical stiffness is insufficient for stability,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 545, no. 3, pp. 1041–1053, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. B. Same, H. Rouhani, K. Masani, and M. R. Popovic, “Closed-loop control of ankle plantarflexors and dorsiflexors using an inverted pendulum apparatus: a pilot study,” Journal of Automatic Control, vol. 21, pp. 31–36, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. A. H. Vette, K. Masani, K. Nakazawa, and M. R. Popovic, “Neural-mechanical feedback control scheme generates physiological ankle torque fluctuation during quiet stance,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 86–95, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. Masani, M. R. Popovic, K. Nakazawa, M. Kouzaki, and D. Nozaki, “Importance of body sway velocity information in controlling ankle extensor activities during quiet stance,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 3774–3782, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. Masani, A. H. Vette, and M. R. Popovic, “Controlling balance during quiet standing: proportional and derivative controller generates preceding motor command to body sway position observed in experiments,” Gait and Posture, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 164–172, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Masani, A. H. Vette, N. Kawashima, and M. R. Popovic, “Neuromusculoskeletal torque-generation process has a large destabilizing effect on the control mechanism of quiet standing,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 1465–1475, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. A. Winter, F. Prince, J. S. Frank, C. Powell, and K. F. Zabjek, “Unified theory regarding A/P and M/L balance in quiet stance,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 2334–2343, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Z. Matjacić, I. L. Johannesen, and T. Sinkjaer, “A multi-purpose rehabilitation frame: a novel apparatus for balance training during standing of neurologically impaired individuals,” Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 681–691, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus