Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014, Article ID 235619, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/235619
Review Article

Emerging Roles of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation in Human Diseases

1Graduate Program in Biological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N2
2Graduate Program in Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3E 0J9

Received 28 July 2014; Revised 25 September 2014; Accepted 17 October 2014; Published 12 November 2014

Academic Editor: Giuseppe D'Antona

Copyright © 2014 Nahid Tamanna and Niaz Mahmood. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), namely, valine, leucine, and isoleucine, are indispensable amino acids required for body protein synthesis. Unlike other amino acids, the BCAAs are primarily catabolised in the extrahepatic tissues. The BCAAs play role in regulation of protein synthesis and turnover as well as maintenance of the body glutamate-glutamine level. In strenuous and traumatic conditions, the BCAAs are oxidized which limits their availability in tissues. Such condition affects the body glutamate-glutamine pool and protein synthesis mechanisms. Thus BCCA supplementation is emerging as a nutritional strategy for treating many diseases. Many studies have found that BCAA administration is able to improve the health status of the patients suffering from different diseases even though there are conditions where they do not exert any effect. There are also some reports where elevated BCAAs have been shown to be associated with the pathogenesis of diseases. In this review, we have discussed the implication of BCAA supplementation in different pathological conditions and their relevant outcomes.