Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 258497, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/258497
Research Article

Symbiotic Efficiency of Native Rhizobia Nodulating Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Soils of Western Kenya

1Department of Applied Plant Sciences, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya
2Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Technical University of Mombasa, P.O. Box 90420, Kenya
3Department of Soil Science, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya
4Department of Plant Sciences, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
5Department of Microbiology, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
6Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
7Department of Soil Science, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
8Faculty of Applied Sciences, Kigali Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3900, Kigali, Rwanda
9Department of Biological Sciences, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 190-50100, Kenya

Received 20 August 2014; Accepted 14 October 2014; Published 11 November 2014

Academic Editor: Arthur P. Schwab

Copyright © 2014 Fanuel Kawaka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Lal, “Soils and food sufficiency. A review,” Agronomy for Sustainable Development, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 113–133, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. V. Mothapo, Nodulation and rhizobia diversity associated with distinct hairy vetch genotypes [Ph.D. thesis], North Carolina State University (NCSU), 2011.
  3. N. V. Mothapo, J. M. Grossman, J. E. Maul, W. Shi, and T. Isleib, “Genetic diversity of resident soil rhizobia isolated from nodules of distinct hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) genotypes,” Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 64, pp. 201–213, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. GOK, Statistical Abstract, Government of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, 2006.
  5. Ministry of National Planning and Development, The National Development Plan 2002–2008, 2002.
  6. R. M. Otsyula and S. I. Ajang, “Control strategy for bean root rot in western Kenya,” in Proceedings of the 2nd Meeting of the Bean Pathology Working Group, D. J. Allen and R. A. Buruchara, Eds., CIAT African Workshop Series no. 37, pp. 71–76, 1995.
  7. P. A. Sanchez, K. D. Shepherd, M. J. Soule et al., “Soil fertility replenishment in Africa. An investment in natural resource capital,” in Replenishing Soil Fertility in Africa, R. J. Buresh, P. A. Sanchez, and F. Calhoun, Eds., pp. 1–46, SSSA Special Publication, Madison, Wis, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  8. C. P. Vance, “Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and phosphorus acquisition. Plant nutrition in a world of declining renewable resources,” Plant Physiology, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 390–397, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. F. Schwartz and M. A. Pastor-Corrales, Eds., Bean Production Problems in the Tropics, CIAT, Cali, Colombia, 1989.
  10. G. Hardarson, “Methods for enhancing symbiotic nitrogen fixation,” Plant and Soil, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Catroux, A. Hartmann, and C. Revellin, “Trends in rhizobial inoculant production and use,” Plant and Soil, vol. 230, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. M. Waswa, Identifying elite rhizobia for commercial soybean (glycine max) inoculants [M.S. thesis], University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya, 2014.
  13. R. Jaetzold, H. Schmidt, R. Hornetz, and C. Shisanya, Farm Management Handbook of Kenya, Volume II, Ministry of Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya, 2009.
  14. J. R. Okalebo, K. W. Gathua, and P. L. Woomer, Laboratory Methods of Soil Analysis: A Working Manual, TSBR-CIAT and SACRED Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 2nd edition, 2002.
  15. J. M. Anderson and J. S. I. Ingram, Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility: A Handbook of Methods, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1993.
  16. D. W. Nelson and L. E. Sommers, “Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter,” in Methods of Soil Analysis, A. L. Page, Ed., Part 2. Agronomy Monographs, pp. 539–579, ASA and SSSA, Madison, Wisc, USA, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  17. J. M. Bremner, “Nitrogen—Total,” in Methods of Soil Analysis—Part 3: Chemical Methods, D. L. Sparks, Ed., pp. 1085–1121, Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wis, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  18. G. N. Chemining'wa, S. W. M. Theuri, and J. W. Muthomi, “Abundance of indigenous rhizobia nodulating cowpea and common bean in central Kenyan soils,” African Journal Horticultural Science, vol. 5, pp. 92–97, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  19. W. J. Broughton and M. J. Dilworth, “Control of leghaemoglobin synthesis in snake beans,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 1075–1080, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. P. Beck, L. A. Materon, and F. Afandi, Practical Rhizobium Legume Technology Manual, vol. 19, Technical Manual International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria, 1993.
  21. P. Somasegaran and H. J. Hoben, Handbook for Rhizobia, Springer Laboratory, 1994.
  22. J. M. Vincent, A Manual for the Practical Study of Root-Nodule Bacteria, IBP Handbook 15, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 1970.
  23. P. Somasegaran and H. J. Hoben, Handbook for Rhizobia: Methods in Legume-Rhizobium Technology, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
  24. A. Argaw, “Evaluation of symbiotic effectiveness and size of resident Rhizobium leguminosarum var. viciae nodulating lentil (Lens culinaris medic) in some Ethiopian soils,” vol. 4, pp. 18–31, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  25. G. M. Mwenda, N. K. Karanja, H. Boga, J. H. P. Kahindi, A. Muigai, and D. Odee, “Abundance and diversity of legume nodulating Rhizobia in soils of Embu district, Kenya,” Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. SAS, SAS/Stat User's Guide: Version 9.1.3, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA, 2003.
  27. M. Niste, V. Roxana, P. Rodica, and R. Ioan, “Stress factors affecting symbiosis activity and nitrogen fixation by rhizobium cultured in vitro,” ProEnvironment, vol. 6, pp. 42–45, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  28. J. R. Okalebo, K. W. Gathua, and P. L. Woomer, Laboratory Methods of Soil and Plant Analysis: A Working Manual, Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility, Soil Science Society of East Africa, 2nd edition, 2002.
  29. J. M. Maingi, C. A. Shisanya, N. M. Gitonga, and B. Hornetz, “Nitrogen fixation by common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in pure and mixed stands in semi-arid south-east Kenya,” European Journal of Agronomy, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. Gentili and K. Huss-Danell, “Local and systemic effects of phosphorus and nitrogen on nodulation and nodule function in Alnus incana,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 54, no. 393, pp. 2757–2767, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. E. Giller, Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Cropping Systems, CABI publishing, Wallingford, UK, 2nd edition, 2001.
  32. N. K. Arora, E. Khare, S. Singh, and D. K. Maheshwari, “Effect of Al and heavy metals on enzymes of nitrogen metabolism of fast and slow growing rhizobia under explanta conditions,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 811–816, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Martyniuk and J. Oron, “Population of rhizobia in some Polish soils not planted with legumes,” EKOLOGIJA, vol. 54, pp. 165–168, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  34. B. Anyango, K. J. Wilson, J. L. Beynon, and K. E. Giller, “Diversity of rhizobia nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris L. in two Kenyan soils with contrasting pHs,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 4016–4021, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Abere, G. Heluf, and A. Fassil, “Symbiotic effectiveness and characterization of Rhizobium strains of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collected from eastern and western Hararghe highlands of Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Natural Resources, vol. 11, pp. 223–244, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  36. M. Jida and F. Assefa, “Phenotypic and plant growth promoting characteristics of rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae from lentil growing areas of Ethiopia,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 5, no. 24, pp. 4133–4142, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. W. Odee, J. M. Sutherland, E. T. Makatiani, S. G. McInroy, and J. I. Sprent, “Phenotypic characteristics and composition of rhizobia associated with woody legumes growing in diverse Kenyan conditions,” Plant and Soil, vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 65–75, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. Alemayehu, Symbiotic and phenotypic characterization of common bean nodulating rhizobia from some area of southern Ethiopia [M.S. thesis in Biology], Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006.
  39. T. Getaneh, Symbiotic and phenotypic diversity of rhizobial isolates nodulating faba bean (Vicia faba L.) from Western Shoa and Western Hararghe, Ethiopia [M.S. thesis], Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2008.
  40. B. Zerihun, Symbiotic and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates (Vicia faba) from Northern Gondar, Ethiopia [M.S. thesis], School of Graduate Studies, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006.
  41. J. M. Vincent, A Manual for the Practical Study of the Root-Nodule Bacteria, International Biological Programme Handbook 15, 1970.
  42. N. W. Mungai and N. M. Karubiu, “Effectiveness of rhizobia isolates from Njoro soils (Kenya) and commercial inoculants in nodulation of Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris),” Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology, vol. 12, pp. 47–59, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  43. H. M. A. Purcino, P. M. Festin, and G. H. Elkân, “Identification of effective strains of Bradyrhizobium for Arachis pintoi,” Tropical Agriculture, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 226–231, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus