Table of Contents
ISRN Virology
Volume 2014, Article ID 263793, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/263793
Review Article

HIV-1 Tropism Test Evaluation: Assessment and Clinical Implications

Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Stamira d’Ancona 20, 20127 Milan, Italy

Received 28 February 2014; Accepted 23 March 2014; Published 7 April 2014

Academic Editors: M. Magnani and F. Pulido

Copyright © 2014 Stefania Chiappetta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

CCR5 and CXCR4 chemokines receptors are critical coreceptors for the binding of HIV to specific host cells. Guidelines recommend its assessment in case of virological failure or before prescription of CCR5 inhibitors. Strategies to assess viral tropism may be divided into phenotypic and genotypic assays; registrative trials of CCR5 inhibitors used phenotypic assay, but recently genotypic ones have been used in clinical practice. The presence of CXCR4 is increasing in naïve patients, with both acute and chronic HIV-1 infections; this coreceptor usage is associated with CD4 depletion. The assessment of viral tropism should be considered in every stage of HIV-1 infection.