International Scholarly Research Notices / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Transendothelial Transport and Its Role in Therapeutics

Table 1

Cellular functions of various kinds of metal and nonmetal ions inside cell and its transport mechanisms.

ElementIonic form Transport mechanismFunctionsReferences

MolybdenumIon transportersCofactor or activator of certain enzymes (e.g., nitrogen fixation, nucleic acid metabolism, and aldehyde oxidation)

CobaltCo2+Ion transporters, DMT1Constituent of vitamins B12

CopperCu+, Cu2+ATP 7A catalyzes, Cu-transporting ATPaseConstituent of plastocyanin and cofactor of respiratory enzymes. [2832]

Iodine (heaviest trace element)IDiffusion and ion transportersConstituent of thyroxin, triiodothyronine, and other thyroid hormones.

Boron, Ion transportersActivates arabinose isomerase.

ZincZn2+Enzyme and protein carriersCofactor of certain enzymes (e.g., carbonic anhydrase, carboxypeptidase)

ManganeseMn2+, (Mn2+).4DMT1Cofactor of certain enzymes (e.g., several kinases, isocitric decarboxylase).

Iron Fe2+, Fe3+DMT1Constituent of haemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochromes.

MagnesiumMg2+Ion transportersConstituent of chlorophyll activates ATPase enzyme

SulphurIon transportersConstituent of coenzyme A, biotin, thiamine, and proteins.

Phosphorus , H2PO4Ion transportersConstituent of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, sugar phosphates, and nucleoside phosphates.

CalciumCa2+Ion transportersConstituent of plant cell walls; matrix component of bone tissue; cofactor of coagulation enzymes.

Potassium K+Diffusion and ion channelsCofactor for pyruvate kinase and K+-stimulated ATPase.

Sodium Na+Diffusion and ion channelsPerform nerve functions, acid base balance, and homeostasis


Zinc2+Zn, ZIP6 (LIV-1) Zinc transporters Metabolic cellular functions[33]

AluminiumAlTransferrin-receptor mediated endocytosis

Metal ionsFe, Cu, and AgMultiple transport proteins, Na+/K+ pump, K+ channel, Na+ lysine symporter channel, and sodium-lysine transporterWork as electrolyte in plasma [34]

Metal ionsFe, Cu, and AgMembrane transporter proteins such as ABC transport proteins Enzymatic cellular functions[35]

Free metal ion and complexesFe, Cu, Ag oxides, and sulphatesTransferrin carries metal species, such as the free metal ion and complexes of the metal with an amino acid or protein.Transmigration of proteins[36, 37]

Divalent metalsFe, Cu, Ag, and zinc(DMT1, DCT1, and Nramp2) transports, ferroprotein, [36, 38, 39]

Divalent metalsFe3+ and cobalt (Co2+), Ca++, Fe++, Mn++, Cd++, Cu++, Ni++, Pb++, Zn ++Divalent metal transporter 1, divalent cation transporter 1 (DCT1)Iron-overload disorders[40, 41]

Trivalent metals Al and MnDiferric transferrin[42]

Methyl mercuryTransport by the L-cysteine system [43]

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