International Scholarly Research Notices / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Transendothelial Transport and Its Role in Therapeutics

Table 2

Transport mechanisms of gases, solvents, and substances across blood brain barrier.

Type of substance/gas TransporterLocationFunctionsReferences

Small inorganic molecules, that is O2, CO2, NO, and H2ODiffusion Ionic pores/receptorsInflux or efflux [47]

OxygenDiffusionIonic pores/receptorsVitality, homeostasis, and cellular metabolism [48]

AmmoniaPassive diffusionIonic pores/receptorsIrritation, toxic [49]

Nitric oxidePassive diffusionIonic pores/receptorsToxic[50]

WaterDiffusion and by aquaporins 1–5Membrane surface aquaporinsControls water relations, regulators of transcellular water flow [5154]

EthanolBy filtration moving through water spacesIonic poresAlcohol-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress alters brain mitochondrial membrane properties and alters basal extracellular glutamate concentrations and clearance in the mesolimbic system[5557]

SolutesParacellular or transcellular diffusionLuminal surfaceInflux or efflux [58, 59]

Glucose, hexose (GLUT-1)Facilitated diffusion by GLUT 1 and GLUT 3 Transporters Glucose, morphine-6--D glucuronideInflux and efflux
monosaccharide transport Proteins play important role in carbohydrate assimilation, distribution, metabolism, and homeostasis

MonocarboxylateProton linked transportMaintenance of glycolytic metabolismProliferation of T-lymphocytes[60, 61]

Facilitated diffusionBenzoic, lactic, lovastatin, and pyruvic acid Influx and efflux promising pharmacological targets including for cancer chemotherapy [61, 62]

Anion exchange (band 3)Facilitated diffusion Cl/, lactate, and metal-anion com- Influx and efflux

Tf-FMMs transferring-conjugated fluorescein loaded magnetic nanoparticlesReceptor mediated transcytosisNanoparticlesInflux, drug delivery [63]

Polycationic proteins and lectinsAbsorptive-mediated transcytosisMembrane receptorsInflux, therapeutic[64]

PeptideSaturable or facilitated transport and transmembrane diffusion or passive diffusionMembrane receptorsInflux, therapeutic[64]

Saturated fatty acidsFacilitated diffusionOctanoateInflux

UreaFacilitated diffusionEfflux

XenobioticsXenobiotics transportersIonic pores/receptorsOut flux, toxicity [6567]

Xenobiotics. 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) Uptake2 (Oct1-3/Slc22a1-3, Pmat/Slc29a4), Net, and Mate1/Slc47a1 transportersATP-driven xenobiotic efflux transporters [35, 68, 69]

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