International Scholarly Research Notices / 2014 / Article / Tab 5

Review Article

Transendothelial Transport and Its Role in Therapeutics

Table 5

Major amino acid transporters occur at blood brain barrier.

Type of amino acidTransporter LocationInflux or effluxReferences

InfluxAmino acid carrier system or alanine preferring transporter and 1-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (1-DOPA).Antiluminal surface of the brain capillary[123, 124]

Alanine, glycine, proline, and -aminobutyric acidA-(alanine-preferring-) system carrierAntiluminal surface of the brain capillaryInflux [64, 125]

Small neutral amino acids, (system A), L-alanine, L-asparaginine, L-cysteine, glutamine, glycine, L-histidine, L-proline, and L-serineA-system carrier, secondary active transportAntiluminal surface of the brain capillaryInflux, efflux [126]

Basic, acidic and -amino acids; glutamate, aspartate, and -amino acid taurineSimple carrier systemMembrane receptorsInflux [127, 128]

L-prolineNa+-gradient-dependent transportMembrane receptors [129]

Large neutral amino acid (system L) (LAT1 and LAT2)Facilitated diffusionBranched or aromatic side chain aminoacids; L-DOPA, -methyl-DOPA, gabapentin, L-leucine, melphalan, L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan, and L-tyrosineInflux

Na+-LNAA neutral amino AcidA-system carrier, secondary active transportAlanine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valineEfflux

Neutral amino acid system ASC) (ASCT1 and ASCT2)A-system carrier, secondary active transportL-alanine, L-aspartate, L-cysteine,
L-glutamate, glycine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-methionine, L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine

System B0+Simple carrier systemBasic and neutral amino acidsEfflux

System Simple carrier system-alanine, taurine

Basic amino acidSimple carrier system LysineInflux

Acidic amino acid
(system x−)
Facilitated diffusionL-aspartate, L-glutamate

System X−Simple carrier systemL-aspartate, L-glutamateEfflux

N-systemA-system carrier, Secondary active transportL-asparaginine, glutamine, glutamate, L-histidine, and L-serine

Excitatory amino
acid (EAAT1-3)
Simple carrier systemAspartate, glutamateInflux

Amine (cation,
system y+)
Active transportL-arginine, choline, L-cysteine, lysine, and ornithineInflux

System TSimple carrier systemThyroid hormones T3 and T4

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