Table 2: Frequency of skin lesions in newborns.

Skin lesions Percentage (%)

(1) Physiological skin lesions
Vernix caseosa 777.7
Physiological scaling10510.5
Sebaceous gland hyperplasia 89489.4
Epstein pearls 89189.1
Miniature puberty
 Hypertrophy of clitoris 232.3
 Hypertrophy of mammary gland757.5
 Vaginal discharge 353.5
Pigmentary changes due to melanin
 (a) Epidermal
  Linea nigra 44544.5
  Pigmentation of pinna49649.6
  Knuckle pigmentation57657.6
  Genital pigmentation20220.2
  Axillary pigmentation25625.6
 (b) Dermal
  Mongolian spot84784.7
Pigmentation other than melanin
 Physiological jaundice 30.3
Color changes from vascular abnormalities
 Acrocyanosis 30930.9
 Harlequin color change 40.4
 Cutis marmorata 383.8

(2) Transient noninfective conditions
Erythema toxicum neonatorum23223.2
Miliaria crystallina303
Eosinophilic pustulosis 10.1

(3) Eczematous eruptions
Napkin dermatitis 10.1
Cradle cap 121.2

(4) Birthmarks
 Salmon patch20720.7
 Haemangioma 20.2
 Congenital melanocytic nevi191.9
 Café-au-lait macule 131.3

(5) Developmental defects
Cutaneous signs of spinal dysraphism
 Sacral dimple12812.8
 Acrochordons 50.5
 Meningomyelocele 10.1
 Dermoid cyst 10.1

(6) Other developmental defects
Cleft lip10.1
Cleft lip & palate 10.1
Umbilical granuloma 10.1
Supernumerary nipple 10.1
Accessory tragus10.1
Adnexal polyp10.1
Sacrococcygeal teratoma 10.1
Omphalocele 10.1
Perineal median raphe cyst 10.1

Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia 10.1
Congenital vitiligo 10.1
Cowlicks hair 20.2
Vaginal tags181.8
Horizontal pigmented bands20.2
Congenital hydrocele 10.1
Twin transfusion syndrome 10.1
HIV positive10.1
Maternal varicella20.2
Linear & whorled hypermelanosis10.1