Table 4: Insect biocontrol agents released to control parthenium weed in different countries.

Biological control agent Feeding habits Native country Released country

Bucculatrix parthenica (Leaf mining moth)MexicoAustralia
Conotrachelus albocinereus (Stem galling weevil)Mexico Australia
Epiblema strenuana (Stem galling moth)MexicoAustralia
Listronotus setosipennis (Stem boring weevil)Argentina and Brazil Australia
Platphalonidia mystica (Stem boring moth)Argentina Sri Lanka
Smicronyx lutulentus (Seed feeding weevil)MexicoPakistan, Australia
Stobaera concinna (Parthenium sap feeder plant hopper)MexicoAustralia
Zygogramma bicolorata (Leaf feeding beetle)MexicoAustralia, India