Table of Contents
ISRN Psychiatry
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 375439, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/375439
Research Article

Empathy in Undergraduate Medical Students of Bangladesh: Psychometric Analysis and Differences by Gender, Academic Year, and Specialty Preferences

1Department of Anatomy, Chattagram Maa-O-Shishu Hospital Medical College, Chittagong, Bangladesh
2Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Chattagram Maa-O-Shishu Hospital Medical College, Chittagong, Bangladesh
3Department of Psychiatry, Chattagram Maa-O-Shishu Hospital Medical College, Chittagong, Bangladesh
4Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Chittagong Medical College, Chittagong, Bangladesh
5Department of Surgery, Diabetic Association Medical College, Faridpur, Bangladesh

Received 11 February 2014; Accepted 18 March 2014; Published 7 April 2014

Academic Editors: M. V. Seeman and A. Weizman

Copyright © 2014 Asma Mostafa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. “Empathy,” Oxford Dictionaries, http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/empathy.
  2. M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, and K. Maxwell, Jefferson Scales of Empathy (JSE): ProfeSSional Manual & User's Guide, Jefferson Medical College—Center for Research in Medical Education and Health Care, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2009.
  3. S. D. Hodges and K. J. K. Klein, “Regulating the costs of empathy: the price of being human,” Journal of Socio-Economics, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 437–452, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Shapiro, “Walking a mile in their patients' shoes: empathy and othering in medical students' education,” Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, article 10, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. M. Glaser, F. W. Markham, H. M. Adler, R. P. McManus, and M. Hojat, “Relationships between scores on the Jefferson Scale of physician empathy, patient perceptions of physician empathy, and humanistic approaches to patient care: a validity study,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 291–294, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, S. Mangione et al., “Empathy in medical students as related to academic performance, clinical competence and gender,” Medical Education, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 522–527, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. İ. Gönüllü and D. Öztuna, “Turkish Adaptation of the Student Version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy,” Marmara Medical Journal, vol. 25, pp. 87–92, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. Hojat, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca et al., “An empirical study of decline in empathy in medical school,” Medical Education, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 934–941, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Hojat, M. J. Vergare, K. Maxwell et al., “The devil is in the third year: a longitudinal study of erosion of empathy in medical school,” Academic Medicine, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 1182–1191, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Chen, R. Lew, W. Hershman, and J. Orlander, “A cross-sectional measurement of medical student empathy,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 1434–1438, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. Magalhães, A. P. Salgueira, P. Costa, and M. J. Costa, “Empathy in senior year and first year medical students: a cross-sectional study,” BMC Medical Education, vol. 11, no. 52, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. J. Rosenfield and L. Jones, “Striking a balance: training medical students to provide empathetic care,” Medical Education, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 927–933, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Vallabh, “Psychometrics of the student version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE-S) in final-year medical students in Johannesburg in 2008,” South African Journal of Bioethics and Law, vol. 4, no. 2, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  14. S. Tavakol, R. Dennick, and M. Tavakol, “Psychometric properties and confirmatory factor analysis of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy,” BMC Medical Education, vol. 11, no. 1, article 54, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. U. Kataoka, N. Koide, K. Ochi, M. Hojat, and J. S. Gonnella, “Measurement of empathy among Japanese medical students: psychometrics and score differences by gender and level of medical education,” Academic Medicine, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 1192–1197, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. S. Roh, B. J. Hahm, D. H. Lee, and D. H. Suh, “Evaluation of empathy among Korean medical students: a cross-sectional study using the Korean version of the Jefferson scale of physician empathy,” Teaching and Learning in Medicine, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 167–171, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Rahimi-Madiseh, M. Tavakol, R. Dennick, and J. Nasiri, “Empathy in Iranian medical students: a preliminary psychometric analysis and differences by gender and year of medical school,” Medical Teacher, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 471–478, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca, and M. Magee, “Physician empathy in medical education and practice: experience with the Jefferson scale of physician empathy,” Seminars in Integrative Medicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 25–41, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Kliszcz, K. Nowicka-Sauer, B. Trzeciak, P. Nowak, and A. Sadowska, “Empathy in health care providers—validation study of the Polish version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy,” Advances in medical sciences, vol. 51, pp. 219–225, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. B. Paro, R. M. Daud-Gallotti, I. C. Tibério, R. M. C. Pinto, and M. A. Martins MA, “Brazilian version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy: psychometric properties and factor analysis,” BMC Medical Education, vol. 12, no. 73, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  21. M. Hojat, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca et al., “The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: development and preliminary psychometric data,” Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 349–365, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Wen, X. Ma, H. Li, Z. Liu, B. Xian, and Y. Liu, “Empathy in Chinese medical students: psychometric characteristics and differences by gender and year of medical education,” BMC Medical Education, vol. 13, no. 130, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  23. H. Kataoka, N. Koide, M. Hojat, and J. S. Gonnella, “Measurement and correlates of empathy among female Japanese physicians,” BMC Medical Education, vol. 12, no. 48, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  24. S. M. Kongsved, M. Basnov, K. Holm-Christensen, and N. H. Hjollund, “Response rate and completeness of questionnaires: a randomized study of internet versus paper-and-pencil versions,” Journal of Medical Internet Research, vol. 9, no. 3, article e25, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. George and P. Mallery, SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference, 11.0 Update, Allyn & Bacon, Boston, Mass, USA, 4th edition, 2003.
  26. H. F. Kaiser, “The application of electronic computers to factor analysis,” Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 20, pp. 141–151, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  27. B. Morling and M. Lamoreaux, “Measuring culture outside the head: a meta-analysis of individualism-collectivism in cultural products,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 199–221, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Hasan, N. Al-Sharqawi, F. Dashti et al., “Level of Empathy among Medical Students in Kuwait University, Kuwait,” Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 22, pp. 385–389, 2013. View at Google Scholar