Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 420429, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/420429
Research Article

Exposure of Prostate to Lipopolysaccharide and Hypoxia Potentiates Neoplastic Behavior and Risk for Prostate Carcinogenesis In Vivo

1Department of Oncology, Cancer Research Division, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5R5
2Molecular Cancer Biology Research Group, Molecular Pathology and Immunology Division, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
3Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK

Received 20 April 2014; Accepted 9 June 2014; Published 17 August 2014

Academic Editor: Athanasios Papatsoris

Copyright © 2014 Maxwell Omabe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. G. Nelson, A. M. De Marzo, and W. B. Isaacs, “Prostate cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 4, pp. 366–381, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. J. Maitland and A. T. Collins, “Prostate cancer stem cells: a new target for therapy,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 2862–2870, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Che and D. Grignon, “Pathology of prostate cancer,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 21, no. 3-4, pp. 381–395, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Omabe, C. Ewenighi, M. Ezeani et al., “Tumor hypoxia and treatment resistant prostate cancer,” Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, vol. 2, no. 13, pp. 1306–1312, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  5. R. Siegel, E. Ward, O. Brawley, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths,” CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 212–236, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. T. Odedina, T. O. Akinremi, F. Chinegwundoh et al., “Prostate cancer disparities in Black men of African descent: a comparative literature review of prostate cancer burden among Black men in the United States, Caribbean, United Kingdom, and West Africa,” Infectious Agents and Cancer, vol. 4, supplement 1, article S2, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Grönberg, J. Xu, J. R. Smith et al., “Early age at diagnosis in families providing evidence of linkage to the hereditary prostate cancer locus (HPC1) on chromosome-1,” Cancer Research, vol. 57, no. 21, pp. 4707–4709, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Omabe and M. Ezeani, “Infection, inflammation and prostate carcinogenesis,” Journal of Infection, Genetics and Evolution, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1195–1198, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Omabe and N. O. Kenneth, “Deep insight to inflammation and cancer,” Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 203–216, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  10. A. J. Zachrnison and A. Masonano, “Chronic prostatitis and infections of prostate gland,” American Journal of Cancer, vol. 40, pp. 232–240, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  11. E. C. Miller, E. Giovannucci, J. W. Erdman Jr., R. Bahnson, S. J. Schwartz, and S. K. Clinton, “Tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk,” Urologic Clinics of North America, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 83–93, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. T. Butterworth, H. O. McCarthy, A. Devlin et al., “Hypoxia selects for androgen independent LNCaP cells with a more malignant geno- and phenotype,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 123, no. 4, pp. 760–768, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Marignol, M. Coffey, M. Lawler, and D. Hollywood, “Hypoxia in prostate cancer: a powerful shield against tumour destruction?” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 313–327, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Omabe, C. Ewenighi, J. C. Onyeanusi et al., “Increasing evidence for cigarette smoking and prostate cancer progression in Eastern Nigera,” International Journal of Biotechnology & Biochemistry, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 61–69, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. M. Omabe and O. B. Onyekachi, “Dissecting the biology of solid tumour: the microenvironment and cancer progression,” The British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1786–1797, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  16. F. T. Odedina, J. O. Ogunbiyi, and F. A. M. Ukoli, “Roots of prostate cancer in African-American men,” Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 539–543, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. K. Wiredu and H. B. Armah, “Cancer mortality patterns in Ghana: a 10-year review of autopsies and hospital mortality,” BMC Public Health, vol. 6, article 159, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. G. Nelson, A. M. De Marzo, T. L. DeWeese et al., “The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer,” Journal of Urology, vol. 172, no. 5, pp. S6–S12, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. S. Palapattu, S. Sutcliffe, P. J. Bastian et al., “Prostate carcinogenesis and inflammation: emerging insights,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1170–1181, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. M. de Marzo, V. L. Marchi, J. I. Epstein, and W. G. Nelson, “Proliferative inflammatory atrophy of the prostate: implications for prostatic carcinogenesis,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 155, no. 6, pp. 1985–1992, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. S. Sfanos and A. M. de Marzo, “Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence,” Histopathology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 199–215, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Masnaon, J. E. Oesterling, and A. J. Zackrnison, “Chronic prostatitis and prostate cancer,” Acta Urologica, vol. 39, pp. 445–449, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  23. A. Vral, V. Magri, E. Montanari et al., “Topographic and quantitative relationship between prostate inflammation, proliferative inflammatory atrophy and low-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a biopsy study in chronic prostatitis patients,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1950–1958, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. J. Freedland and A. W. Partin, “Prostate-specific sntigen: update 2006,” Urology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 458–460, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. M. de Marzo, E. A. Platz, S. Sutcliffe et al., “Inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 256–269, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. J. Majmundar, W. J. Wong, and M. C. Simon, “Hypoxia-inducible factors and the response to hypoxic stress,” Molecular Cell, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 294–309, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Höckel and P. Vaupel, “Biological consequences of tumor hypoxia,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 28, no. 2, supplement 8, pp. 36–41, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar