Table of Contents
ISRN Ophthalmology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 435276, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/435276
Clinical Study

Orbital Volumetry in Graves' Orbitopathy: Muscle and Fat Involvement in relation to Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy

1Department of Ophthalmology, Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark
2Eye Clinic 2061, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, Copenhagen, Denmark
3Department of Endocrinology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, Copenhagen, Denmark
4Department of Radiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, Copenhagen, Denmark

Received 22 December 2013; Accepted 17 February 2014; Published 2 April 2014

Academic Editors: L. Pierro and L. Racette

Copyright © 2014 Moug Al-Bakri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. S. Paik, W. K. Cho, E. H. Oh, S. B. Lee, and S. W. Yang, “Palmitate induced secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 in orbital fibroblasts derived from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy,” Molecular Vision, vol. 18, pp. 1467–1477, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  2. A. C. Goncalves, E. M. Gebrim, and M. L. Monteiro, “Imaging studies for diagnosing Graves' orbitopathy and dysthyroid optic neuropathy,” Clinics, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 1327–1334, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. A. C. Goncalves, L. N. Silva, E. M. Gebrim, S. Matayoshi, and M. L. Monteiro, “Predicting dysthyroid optic neuropathy using computed tomography volumetric analyses of orbital structures,” Clinics, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 891–896, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. D. McKeag, C. Lane, J. H. Lazarus et al., “Clinical features of dysthyroid optic neuropathy: a European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) survey,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 455–458, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. C. Goncalves, L. N. Silva, E. M. Gebrim, and M. L. Monteiro, “Quantification of orbital apex crowding for screening of dysthyroid optic neuropathy using multidetector CT,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1602–1607, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. J. H. Lee, S. Y. Lee, and J. S. Yoon, “Risk factors associated with the severity of thyroid-associated orbitopathy in Korean patients,” Korean Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 267–273, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Forbes, D. G. Gehring, and C. A. Gorman, “Volume measurements of normal orbital structures by computed tomographic analysis,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 149–154, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. G. Peyster, F. Ginsberg, J. H. Silber, and L. P. Adler, “Exophthalmos caused by excessive fat: CT volumetric analysis and differential diagnosis,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 459–464, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. Weis, M. K. Heran, A. Jhamb et al., “Quantitative computed tomographic predictors of compressive optic neuropathy in patients with thyroid orbitopathy: a volumetric analysis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 119, no. 10, pp. 2174–2178, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. L. Barrett, H. J. Glatt, R. M. Burde, and M. H. Gado, “Optic nerve dysfunction in thyroid eye disease: CT,” Radiology, vol. 167, no. 2, pp. 503–507, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. L. Anderson, J. P. Tweeten, J. R. Patrinely, P. E. Garland, and S. M. Thiese, “Dysthyroid optic neuropathy without extraocular muscle involvement,” Ophthalmic Surgery, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 568–574, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L.-L. Chan, H.-E. Tan, S. Fook-Chong, T.-H. Teo, L.-H. Lim, and L.-L. Seah, “Graves ophthalmopathy: the bony orbit in optic neuropathy, its apical angular capacity, and impact on prediction of risk,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 597–602, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. L. Weber, R. L. Dallow, and N. R. Sabates, “Graves' disease of the orbit,” Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 61–72, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Z. J. Fang, J. Y. Zhang, and W. M. He, “CT features of exophthalmos in Chinese subjects with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy,” International Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 146–149, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. G. Forbes, C. A. Gorman, and M. D. Brennan, “Ophthalmopathy of Graves' disease: computerized volume measurements of the orbital fat and muscle,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 651–656, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Trokel, M. Kazim, and S. Moore, “Orbital fat removal: decompression for Graves orbitopathy,” Ophthalmology, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 674–682, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus