Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014, Article ID 525719, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/525719
Research Article

Giardia duodenalis: Number and Fluorescence Reduction Caused by the Advanced Oxidation Process (H2O2/UV)

1Department of Sanitation and the Environment, School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urbanism, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), CP 6021, 13083-852 Campinas, SP, Brazil
2Department of Animal Biology, Biology Institute, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), CP 6109, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil
3Padre Anchieta University Center, UNIANCHIETA, Bom Jesus de Pirapora Street 100/140, 13207-270 Jundiaí, SP, Brazil

Received 1 September 2014; Accepted 4 November 2014; Published 7 December 2014

Academic Editor: Erick R. Bandala

Copyright © 2014 José Roberto Guimarães et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. L. Moe and R. D. Rheingans, “Global challenges in water, sanitation and health,” Journal of Water and Health, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 41–58, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Baldursson and P. Karanis, “Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: Review of worldwide outbreaks—an update 2004–2010,” Water Research, vol. 45, no. 20, pp. 6603–6614, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. Sprong, S. M. Cacciò, J. W. van der Giessen, and ZOOPNET network and partners, “Identification of zoonotic genotypes of Giardia duodenalis,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 3, no. 12, p. e558, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. M. Machado, A. M. Dinis, L. Salgueiro, J. B. A. Custódio, C. Cavaleiro, and M. C. Sousa, “Anti-Giardia activity of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil and eugenol: effects on growth, viability, adherence and ultrastructure,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 732–739, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. T. Cantey, S. Roy, B. Lee et al., “Study of nonoutbreak giardiasis: novel findings and implications for research,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 124, no. 12, pp. 1175.e1–1175.e8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. C. Neto, J. U. Santos, and R. M. B. Franco, “Evaluation of activated sludge treatment and the efficiency of the disinfection of Giardia species cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts by UV at a sludge treatment plant in Campinas, South-East Brazil,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 89–94, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. M. Nasser, D. Vaizel-Ohayon, A. Aharoni, and M. Revhun, “Prevalence and fate of giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 477–484, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. J. Robertson, L. Hermansen, B. K. Gjerde, E. Strand, J. O. Alvsvåg, and N. Langeland, “Application of genotyping during an extensive outbreak of waterborne giardiasis in Bergen, Norway, during autumn and winter 2004,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 2212–2217, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. R. C. A. Thompson and P. Monis, “Giardia—from genome to proteome,” Advances in Parasitology, vol. 78, pp. 57–95, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. “Ministério das Cidades (MC)-Sistema Nacional de Informação sobre Saneamento (SNIS)-Diagnóstico dos Serviços de Água e Esgoto-2011,” 2013.
  11. R. S. Araújo, M. Dropa, L. N. Fernandes et al., “Genotypic characterization of cryptosporidium hominis from water samples in São Paulo, Brazil,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 834–838, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. C. Neto, L. U. dos Santos, M. I. Z. Sato, and R. M. B. Franco, “Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in surface water supply of Campinas, Southeast Brazil,” Water Science & Technology, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 217–222, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. A. G. Leal Diego, A. P. Dores Ramos, D. S. Marques Souza et al., “Sanitary quality of edible bivalve mollusks in Southeastern Brazil using an UV based depuration system,” Ocean and Coastal Management, vol. 72, pp. 93–100, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. U. Santos, T. R. Bonatti, R. Cantusio Neto, and R. M. B. Franco, “Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil,” Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 309–313, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. C. Hayes, M. Garvey, A. M. Fogarty, E. Clifford, and N. J. Rowan, “Inactivation of recalcitrant protozoan oocysts and bacterial endospores in drinking water using high-intensity pulsed UV light irradiation,” Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 513–522, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Mun, S. H. Cho, T. S. Kim, B. T. Oh, and J. Yoon, “Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in soil by microwave treatment compared to UV and ozone treatment,” Chemosphere, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 285–290, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Hoigne and H. Bader, “The role of hydroxyl radical reactions in ozonation processes in aqueous solutions,” Water Research, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 377–386, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Sievers, “Advanced oxidation processes,” Treatise on Water Science, vol. 4, pp. 377–408, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  19. C. R. da Silva, M. G. Maniero, S. Rath, and J. R. Guimarães, “Antibacterial activity inhibition after the degradation of flumequine by UV/H2O2,” Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 106–114, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. R. Guimarães and A. S. Barretto, “Photocatalytic inactivation of Clostridium perfringens and coliphages in water,” Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 403–411, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. P. Rodrigues, R. L. Ziolli, and J. R. Guimarães, “Inactivation of Escherichia coli in water by TiO2-assisted disinfection using solar light,” Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 126–134, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. R. Guimarães, J. Ibáñez, M. I. Litter, and R. Pizarro, Eliminación de contaminantes por fotocatálisis heterogénea, Ciemat, Madrid, Spain, 1st edition, 2004.
  23. T. P. Curtis, G. W. Alker, B. M. Dowling, and P. A. Christensen, “Fate of Cryptosporidium oocysts in an immobilised titanium dioxide reactor with electric field enhancement,” Water Research, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 2410–2413, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Ryu, D. Gerrity, J. C. Crittenden, and M. Abbaszadegan, “Photocatalytic inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum with TiO2 and low-pressure ultraviolet irradiation,” Water Research, vol. 42, no. 6-7, pp. 1523–1530, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. APHA-AWWA-WEF, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA, 20th edition, 1998.
  26. A. L. Smith and H. V. Smith, “A comparison of fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining and in vitro excystation for determining Giardia intestinalis cyst viability,” Parasitology, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 329–331, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. L. Barbee, D. J. Weber, M. D. Sobsey, and W. A. Rutala, “Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst infectivity by disinfection and sterilization processes,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 605–611, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. Hernández, D. Hernández, Z. Zamora et al., “Giardia duodenalis: effects of an ozonized sunflower oil product (Oleozon) on in vitro trophozoites,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 208–212, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. C. Weir, N. J. Pokorny, R. A. Carreno, J. T. Trevors, and H. Lee, “Efficacy of common laboratory disinfectants on the infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in cell culture,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 2576–2579, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. L. Clancy, Z. Bukhari, T. M. Hargy, J. R. Bolton, B. W. Dussert, and M. M. Marshall, “Using UV to inactivate Cryptosporidium,” American Water Works Association, vol. 92, no. 9, pp. 97–104, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. Gómez-Couso, M. Fontán-Sainz, K. G. McGuigan, and E. Ares-Mazás, “Effect of the radiation intensity, water turbidity and exposure time on the survival of Cryptosporidium during simulated solar disinfection of drinking water,” Acta Tropica, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  32. R. M. B. Franco, R. Rocha-Eberhardt, and R. Cantusio Neto, “Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw water from the Atibaia river, Campinas, Brazil,” Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 109–111, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. H. Mahbubani, A. K. Bej, M. H. Perlin, F. W. Schaefer III, W. Jakubowski, and R. M. Atlas, “Differentiation of Giardia duodenalis from other Giardia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction and gene probes,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 74–78, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. Abe, I. Kimata, and M. Iseki, “Identification of genotypes of Giardia intestinalis isolates from dogs in Japan by direct sequencing of the PCR amplified glutamate dehydrogenase gene,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 29–33, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Method 1623.1: Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Water by Filtration/IMS/FA, EPA-816-R-12-001, Office of Water. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 2012.
  36. W. A. M. Hijnen, E. F. Beerendonk, and G. J. Medema, “Inactivation credit of UV radiation for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (oo)cysts in water: a review,” Water Research, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 3–22, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  37. M. Otaki, T. Hirata, and S. Ohgaki, “Aqueous microorganisms inactivation by photocatalytic reaction,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 42, no. 3-4, pp. 103–108, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. X. Doménech, W. F. Jardim, and M. I. Litter, “Procesos avanzados de oxidación para la eliminación de contaminantes,” in Eliminación de Contaminantes por Fotocatálisis Heterogenea, La Plata, X. Doménech, W. F. Jardim, and M. I. Litter, Eds., pp. 3–25, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  39. E. Caron, G. Chevrefils Jr., B. Barbeau, P. Payment, and M. Prevost, “Impact of microparticles on UV disinfection of indigenous aerobic spores,” Water Research, vol. 41, pp. 4546–4556, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. A. Vogelpohl, “Applications of AOPs in wastewater treatment,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 207–211, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G.-A. Shin, K. G. Linden, and G. Faubert, “Inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts by polychromatic UV,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 790–792, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Quilez, C. Sanchez-Acedo, C. Avendaño, E. del Cacho, and F. Lopez-Bernad, “Efficacy of two peroxygen-based disinfectants for inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 2479–2483, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Q. Hu, C. Zhang, Z. Wang et al., “Photodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 154, no. 1–3, pp. 795–803, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. W. J. Fernando, “Theoretical considerations and modeling of chemical inactivation of microorganisms: inactivation of Giardia Cysts by free chlorine,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 259, no. 2, pp. 297–303, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  45. M. Sökmen, S. Degerli, and A. Aslan, “Photocatalytic disinfection of Giardia intestinalis and Acanthamoeba castellani cysts in water,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 44–48, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. R. B. França, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. e ovos de helmintos em esgoto hospitalar: destruição e análise do dano estrutural dos protozoários após o processo fotoeletroquímico, Dissertação (Mestrado em Parasitologia) [M.S. thesis], UNICAMP-Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil, 2007.
  47. J. R. Guimarães, L. U. Santos, R. M. B. Franco, and R. A. Guadagnini, “Peroxidation and peroxidation assisted by ultraviolet radiation in the inactivation of Giardia duodenalis (Peroxidação e peroxidação assistida por radiação ultravioleta na inativação de cistos de Giardia duodenalis),” Revista Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental. In press.