Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 532852, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/532852
Review Article

Current Trends in Bioethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Substrate, Inhibitor Reduction, Growth Variables, Coculture, and Immobilization

Department of Microbial, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Received 8 August 2014; Accepted 18 November 2014; Published 8 December 2014

Academic Editor: Maria Angeles de la Torre-Ruiz

Copyright © 2014 Asmamaw Tesfaw and Fassil Assefa. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. Licht, World Ethanol Markets: The Outlook to 2015, Agra Europe, Tunbridge Wells, UK, 2006.
  2. G. R. Timilsina and A. Shrestha, “How much hope should we have for biofuels?” Energy, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 2055–2069, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. I. Mussatto, G. Dragone, P. M. R. Guimarães et al., “Technological trends, global market, and challenges of bio-ethanol production,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 817–830, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Gutiérrez-Rivera, K. Waliszewski-Kubiak, O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, and M. G. Aguilar-Uscanga, “Conversion efficiency of glucose/xylose mixtures for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV01 and Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 263–270, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. M. Ishola and M. J. Taherzadeh, “Effect of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment on ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB),” Bioresource Technology, vol. 165, pp. 9–12, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. L. Bryant, J. Lu, J. W. Richardson, and J. L. Outlaw, “Outlaw, long-term effects of increasing ethanol production on agricultural markets and trade, land use, and food security,” in The Economics of Alternative Energy Sources and Globalization, A. Schmitz and C. B. Moss, Eds., p. 126, Bentham Science, Sharjah, Emirate, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  7. A. Ajanovic, “Biofuels versus food production: does biofuels production increase food prices?” Energy, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 2070–2076, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Prasertwasu, D. Khumsupan, T. Komolwanich, T. Chaisuwan, A. Luengnaruemitchai, and S. Wongkasemjit, “Efficient process for ethanol production from Thai Mission grass (Pennisetum polystachion),” Bioresource Technology, vol. 163, pp. 152–159, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Singh, S. Bajar, and N. R. Bishnoi, “Enzymatic hydrolysis of microwave alkali pretreated rice husk for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Scheffersomyces stipitis and their co-culture,” Fuel, vol. 116, pp. 699–702, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Karagoz and M. Ozkan, “Ethanol production from wheat straw by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis co-culture in batch and continuous system,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 158, pp. 286–293, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. B. Quevedo-Hidalgo, F. Monsalve-Marín, P. C. Narváez-Rincón, A. M. Pedroza-Rodríguez, and M. E. Velásquez-Lozano, “Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using lignocellulosic hydrolysate from Chrysanthemum waste degradation,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 459–466, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. M. Park, B. R. Oh, J. W. Seo et al., “Efficient production of ethanol from empty palm fruit bunch fibers by fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 170, no. 8, pp. 1807–1814, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Shahsavarani, D. Hasegawa, D. Yokota et al., “Enhanced bio-ethanol production from cellulosic materials by semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using high temperature resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae TJ14,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 20–23, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Tian, Y. Li, Z. Wang, and X. Yang, “Evaluation of simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of undetoxified steam-exploded corn stover by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5,” Bioenergy Research, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1142–1146, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y. Shen, J.-S. Guo, Y.-P. Chen et al., “Application of low-cost algal nitrogen source feeding in fuel ethanol production using high gravity sweet potato medium,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 160, no. 3-4, pp. 229–235, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Kefale, M. Redi, and A. Asfaw, “Potential of bioethanol production and optimization test from agricultural waste: the case of wet coffee processing waste (pulp),” International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 446–450, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Chu, J. Zhang, and J. Bao, “Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of corn stover at high temperature and high solids loading by a thermotolerant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1,” Bioenergy Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1020–1026, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. Jutakanoke, N. Leepipatpiboon, V. Tolieng, V. Kitpreechavanich, T. Srinorakutara, and A. Akaracharanya, “Sugarcane leaves: pretreatment and ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 39, pp. 283–289, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Li, K. Gao, S. Tian, S. Zhang, and X. Yang, “Evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5 for ethanol production from enzymatic hydrolysate of non-detoxified steam-exploded corn stover,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 22, pp. 10548–10552, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Akaracharanya, J. Kesornsit, N. Leepipatpiboon, T. Srinorakutara, V. Kitpreechavanich, and V. Tolieng, “Evaluation of the waste from cassava starch production as a substrate for ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Annals of Microbiology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 431–436, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Bi, D. Chu, P. Zhu et al., “Utilization of dry distiller's grain and solubles as nutrient supplement in the simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation at high solids loading of corn stover,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 273–276, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. F. Xin, A. Geng, M. L. Chen, and M. J. M. Gum, “Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)—pretreated newspaper for cellulosic ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 162, no. 4, pp. 1052–1064, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. C. Kuhad, G. Mehta, R. Gupta, and K. K. Sharma, “Fed batch enzymatic saccharification of newspaper cellulosics improves the sugar content in the hydrolysates and eventually the ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1189–1194, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Nikolić, L. Mojović, D. Pejin, M. Rakin, and M. Vukašinović, “Production of bioethanol from corn meal hydrolyzates by free and immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1449–1456, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. M. Gouvea, C. Torres, A. S. Franca, L. S. Oliveira, and E. S. Oliveira, “Feasibility of ethanol production from coffee husks,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1315–1319, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. V. P. Rocha, T. H. S. Rodrigues, T. L. de Albuquerque, L. R. B. Gonçalves, and G. R. de Macedo, “Evaluation of dilute acid pretreatment on cashew apple bagasse for ethanol and xylitol production,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 243, pp. 234–243, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Singh, P. Sharma, A. K. Saran, N. Singh, and N. R. Bishnoi, “Comparative study on ethanol production from pretreated sugarcane bagasse using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae on various matrices,” Renewable Energy, vol. 50, pp. 488–493, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Laopaiboon and P. Laopaiboon, “Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice in repeated-batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on corncob,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 559–566, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Ji, J. Yu, X. Zhang, and T. Tan, “Characteristics of an immobilized yeast cell system using very high gravity for the fermentation of ethanol,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Behera, R. C. Mohanty, and R. C. Ray, “Ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers with immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs,” Applied Energy, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 212–215, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. M. Pacheco, D. R. Gondim, and L. R. B. Gonçalves, “Ethanol production by fermentation using immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in cashew apple bagasse,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 161, no. 1–8, pp. 209–217, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. Ylitervo, C. J. Franzén, and M. J. Taherzadeh, “Ethanol production at elevated temperatures using encapsulation of yeast,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 22–29, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. Razmovski and V. Vučurović, “Ethanol production from sugar beet molasses by S. cerevisiae entrapped in an alginate-maize stem ground tissue matrix,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 48, no. 4-5, pp. 378–385, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. Winkelhausen, E. Velickova, S. A. Amartey, and S. Kuzmanova, “Ethanol production using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in lyophilized cellulose gel,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 162, no. 8, pp. 2214–2220, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Inal and M. Yiǧitoǧlu, “Production of bioethanol by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto modified sodium alginate gel,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 86, no. 12, pp. 1548–1554, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Nikolić, L. Mojović, and A. Djukić-Vuković, “Possibilities of improving the bioethanol production from cornmeal by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus,” in Causes, Impacts and Solutions to Global Warming, I. Dincer, C. O. Colpan, and F. Kadioglu, Eds., pp. 627–642, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  37. C. C. Geddes, I. U. Nieves, and L. O. Ingram, “Advances in ethanol production,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 312–319, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. K. Mathew, M. Crook, K. Chaney, and A. C. Humphries, “Continuous bioethanol production from oilseed rape straw hydrosylate using immobilised Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 154, pp. 248–253, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y. Lin, W. Zhang, C. Li, K. Sakakibara, S. Tanaka, and H. Kong, “Factors affecting ethanol fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 47, pp. 395–401, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. Ortiz-Muñiz, O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, B. Torrestiana-Sanchez, and M. G. Aguilar-Uscanga, “Kinetic study on ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 yeast isolated from sugar canemolasses,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 1361–1367, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. L. Fernández-López, B. Torrestiana-Sánchez, M. A. Salgado-Cervantes, P. G. Mendoza García, and M. G. Aguilar-Uscanga, “Use of sugarcane molasses “B” as an alternative for ethanol production with wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 at high sugar concentrations,” Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 605–614, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. Kasavi, I. Finore, L. Lama et al., “Evaluation of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from biomass,” Biomass & Bioenergy, vol. 45, pp. 230–238, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Le Man, E. R. Rene, S. K. Behera, and H.-S. Park, “Main and interaction effects of process parameters on the ethanol production capacity of food-waste leachate by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae,” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1015–1022, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. Jin, R. Liu, and Y. He, “Kinetics of batch fermentations for ethanol production with immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on sweet sorghum stalk juice,” Procedia Environmental Science, vol. 12, pp. 137–145, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. P. Ariyajaroenwong, P. Laopaiboon, P. Jaisil, and L. Laopaiboon, “Repeated-batch ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on sweet sorghum stalks,” Energies, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1215–1228, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Wakamatsu, T. Tani, H. Taguchi, M. Matsuoka, K. Kida, and T. Akamatsu, “Ethanol production from d-lactic acid by lactic acid-assimilating Saccharomyces cerevisiae NAM34-4C,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 85–90, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. N. Hu, B. Yuan, J. Sun, S.-A. Wang, and F.-L. Li, “Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 1359–1368, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. R. Hickert, F. Da Cunha-Pereira, P. B. De Souza-Cruz, C. A. Rosa, and M. A. Z. Ayub, “Ethanogenic fermentation of co-cultures of Candida shehatae HM 52.2 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ICV D254 in synthetic medium and rice hull hydrolysate,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 131, pp. 508–514, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. Pérez-Carrillo, M. L. Cortés-Callejas, L. E. Sabillón-Galeas et al., “Detrimental effect of increasing sugar concentrations on ethanol production from maize or decorticated sorghum mashes fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Zymomonas mobilis,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 301–307, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C.-M. Zhang, L. Jiang, Z.-G. Mao, J.-H. Zhang, and L. Tang, “Effects of propionic acid and pH on ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in cassava mash,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 165, no. 3-4, pp. 883–891, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. M. Harde, S. B. Bankar, H. Ojamo, T. Granström, R. S. Singhal, and S. A. Survase, “Continuous lignocellulosic ethanol production using Coleus forskohlii root hydrolysate,” Fuel, vol. 126, pp. 77–84, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. F. Tomás, P. Karagöz, D. Karakashev, and I. Angelidaki, “Extreme thermophilic ethanol production from rapeseed straw: using the newly isolated Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus and combining it with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a two-step process,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 1574–1582, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. Wongwatanapaiboon, K. Kangvansaichol, V. Burapatana et al., “The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2012, Article ID 303748, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. J. Taherzadeh and K. Karimi, “Fermentation inhibitors in ethanol processes and different strategies to reduce their effects,” Biofuels, pp. 287–311, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. Ludwig, M. Amann, T. Hirth, S. Rupp, and S. Zibek, “Development and optimization of single and combined detoxification processes to improve the fermentability of lignocellulose hydrolyzates,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 133, pp. 455–461, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. L. N. Jayakody, N. Hayashi, and H. Kitagaki, “Identification of glycolaldehyde as the key inhibitor of bioethanol fermentation by yeast and genome-wide analysis of its toxicity,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 285–292, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S.-K. Kim, D.-H. Park, S. H. Song, Y.-J. Wee, and G.-T. Jeong, “Effect of fermentation inhibitors in the presence and absence of activated charcoal on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 659–666, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. W. Parawira and M. Tekere, “Biotechnological strategies to overcome inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates for ethanol production: review,” Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 20–31, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. B. Alriksson, A. Cavka, and L. J. Jönsson, “Improving the fermentability of enzymatic hydrolysates of lignocellulose through chemical in-situ detoxification with reducing agents,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 1254–1263, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. I. De Bari, D. Cuna, V. Di Matteo, and F. Liuzzi, “Bioethanol production from steam-pretreated corn stover through an isomerase mediated process,” New Biotechnology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 185–195, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J. Zhu, Q. Yong, Y. Xu, and S. Yu, “Detoxification of corn stover prehydrolyzate by trialkylamine extraction to improve the ethanol production with Pichia stipitis CBS 5776,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 1663–1668, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. L. Grzenia, R. W. Dong, H. Jasuja, M. J. Kipper, X. Qian, and S. R. Wickramasinghe, “Conditioning biomass hydrolysates by membrane extraction,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 415-416, pp. 75–84, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. P. Wan, D. Zhai, Z. Wang, X. Yang, and S. Tian, “Ethanol production from nondetoxified dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolysate by cocultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5 and Pichia stipitis CBS6054,” Biotechnology Research International, vol. 2012, Article ID 656371, 6 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. L. Canilha, W. Carvalho, M. D. G. De Almeida Felipe, J. B. De Almeida E Silva, and M. Giulietti, “Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using Pichia stipitis,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 161, no. 1–8, pp. 84–92, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. E. Y. Park, K. Naruse, and T. Kato, “One-pot bioethanol production from cellulose by co-culture of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Biotechnology for Biofuels, vol. 5, article 64, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. Tesfaw and F. Assefa, “Co-culture: a great promising method in single cell protein production, a review,” Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Review, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 12–20, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. W. F. Duarte, J. C. Amorim, and R. F. Schwan, “The effects of co-culturing non-Saccharomyces yeasts with S. cerevisiae on the sugar cane spirit (cachaça) fermentation process,” Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 175–194, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. Vilela-Moura, D. Schuller, A. Mendes-Faia, and M. Côrte-Real, “Effects of acetic acid, ethanol, and SO2 on the removal of volatile acidity from acidic wines by two Saccharomyces cerevisiae commercial strains,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 1317–1326, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. N. Sankh, P. S. Deshpande, and A. U. Arvindekar, “Improvement of ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae by enhancement of biomass and nutrient supplementation,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 164, no. 8, pp. 1237–1245, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. Ding, X. Huang, L. Zhang, N. Zhao, D. Yang, and K. Zhang, “Tolerance and stress response to ethanol in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 253–263, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. Chotineeranat, R. Wansuksri, K. Piyachomkwan, P. Chatakanonda, P. Weerathaworn, and K. Sriroth, “Effect of calcium ions on ethanol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Sugar Tech, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 120–124, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Matsushika and S. Sawayama, “Effect of initial cell concentration on ethanol production by flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae with xylose-fermenting ability,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 162, no. 7, pp. 1952–1960, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. Laluce, J. O. Tognolli, K. F. de Oliveira, C. S. Souza, and M. R. Morais, “Optimization of temperature, sugar concentration, and inoculum size to maximize ethanol production without significant decrease in yeast cell viability,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 627–637, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. Vilela, D. Schuller, A. Mendes-Faia, and M. Côrte-Real, “Reduction of volatile acidity of acidic wines by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 4991–5000, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. Gökgöz and M. Yiğitoğlu, “Immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on to modified carboxymethylcellulose for production of ethanol,” Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 849–857, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. K. C. Sembiring, H. Mulyani, A. I. Fitria, D. Dahnum, and Y. Sudiyani, “Rice flour and white glutinous rice flour for use on immobilization of yeast cell in ethanol production,” Energy Procedia, vol. 32, pp. 99–104, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  77. S. Kirdponpattara and M. Phisalaphong, “Bacterial cellulose-alginate composite sponge as a yeast cell carrier for ethanol production,” Biochemical Engineering Journal, vol. 77, pp. 103–109, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. H. Zabed, G. Faruq, J. N. Sahu, M. S. Azirun, R. Hashim, and A. Nasrulhaq Boyce, “Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 957102, 11 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus