Table of Contents
ISRN Nutrition
Volume 2014, Article ID 561401, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/561401
Research Article

Influence of Hydration Status on Changes in Plasma Cortisol, Leukocytes, and Antigen-Stimulated Cytokine Production by Whole Blood Culture following Prolonged Exercise

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Ashby Road, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK

Received 6 January 2014; Accepted 11 February 2014; Published 12 March 2014

Academic Editors: G. Davison, M. G. Nikolaidis, and K. Stokes

Copyright © 2014 Ida S. Svendsen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. Davis, M. L. Kohut, L. H. Colbert, D. A. Jackson, A. Ghaffar, and E. P. Mayer, “Exercise, alveolar macrophage function, and susceptibility to respiratory infection,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 1461–1466, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  2. E. A. Murphy, J. M. Davis, M. D. Carmichael, J. D. Gangemi, A. Ghaffar, and E. P. Mayer, “Exercise stress increases susceptibility to influenza infection,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1152–1155, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. M. Gleeson and N. C. Bishop, “Modification of immune responses to exercise by carbohydrate, glutamine and anti-oxidant supplements,” Immunology and Cell Biology, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 554–561, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. N. P. Walsh, M. Gleeson, R. J. Shephard et al., “Position statement. Part one: immune function and exercise,” Exercise Immunology Review, vol. 17, pp. 6–63, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  5. D. C. Nieman, S. Simandle, D. A. Henson et al., “Lymphocyte proliferative response to 2.5 hours of running,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 404–409, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  6. P. A. Steerenberg, I. A. van Asperen, A. van Nieuw Amerongen, A. Biewenga, D. Mol, and G. J. Medema, “Salivary levels of immunoglobulin A in triathletes,” European Journal of Oral Sciences, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 305–309, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. T. B. Tomasi, F. B. Trudeau, D. Czerwinski, and S. Erredge, “Immune parameters in athletes before and after strenuous exercise,” Journal of Clinical Immunology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 173–178, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. Kappel, N. Tvede, H. Galbo et al., “Evidence that the effect of physical exercise on nk cell-activity is mediated by epinephrine,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 2530–2534.
  9. D. A. Henson, D. C. Nieman, J. C. Parker et al., “Carbohydrate supplementation and the lymphocyte proliferative response to long endurance running,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 574–580, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  10. G. Müns, “Effect of long-distance running on polymorphonuclear neutrophil phagocytic function of the upper airways,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 96–99, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  11. L. P. Boulet, “Cough and upper airway disorders in elite athletes: a critical review,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 417–421, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. M. Gleeson, N. Bishop, M. Oliveira, and P. Tauler, “Influence of training load on upper respiratory tract infection incidence and antigen-stimulated cytokine production,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 451–457, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. M. Gleeson, N. Bishop, M. Oliveira, T. McCauley, P. Tauler, and A. S. Muhamad, “Respiratory infection risk in athletes: association with antigen-stimulated IL-10 production and salivary IgA secretion,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 410–417, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. C. A. Biron, K. B. Nguyen, G. C. Pien, L. P. Cousens, and T. P. Salazar-Mather, “Natural killer cells in antiviral defense: function and regulation by innate cytokines,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 17, pp. 189–220, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  15. C. E. Samuel, “Antiviral actions of interferons,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 778–809, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  16. G. Trinchieri, “Cytokines acting on or secreted by macrophages during intracellular infection (IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma),” Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 17–23, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  17. K. Ostrowski, T. Rohde, S. Asp, P. Schjerling, and B. K. Pedersen, “Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in strenuous exercise in humans,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 515, part 1, pp. 287–291, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  18. B. K. Pedersen and A. D. Toft, “Effects of exercise on lymphocytes and cytokines,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 246–251, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. M.L. Kohut, G.W. Boehm, and J. A. Moynihan, “Prolonged exercise suppresses antigen-specific cytokine response to upper respiratory infection,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 678–684, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Abbasi, E. Fehrenbach, M. Hauth et al., “Changes in spontaneous and LPS-induced ex vivo cytokine production and mRNA expression in male and female athletes following prolonged exhaustive exercise,” Exercise Immunology Review, vol. 19, pp. 8–28, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  21. R. P. da Silva, T. Mündel, A. J. Natali et al., “Pre-game hydration status, sweat loss, and fluid intake in elite Brazilian young male soccer players during competition,” Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 37–42, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. L. F. Aragon-Vargas, J. Moncada-Jimenez, J. Hernandez-Elizondo, A. Barrenechea, and M. Monge-Alvarado, “Evaluation of pre-game hydration status, heat stress, and fluid balance during professional soccer competition in the heat,” European Journal of Sport Science, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 269–276, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. R. J. Maughan, S. M. Shirreffs, S. J. Merson, and C. A. Horswill, “Fluid and electrolyte balance in elite male football (soccer) players training in a cool environment,” Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  24. S. L. Volpe, K. A. Poule, and E. G. Bland, “Estimation of prepractice hydration status of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes,” Journal of Athletic Training, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 624–629, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. L. Y. Beis, M. Wright-Whyte, B. Fudge, T. Noakes, and Y. P. Pitsiladis, “Drinking behaviors of elite male runners during marathon competition,” Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 254–261, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. R. J. Maughan, S. J. Merson, N. P. Broad, and S. M. Shirreffs, “Fluid and electrolyte intake and loss in elite soccer players during training,” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 333–346, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  27. C. M. Maresh, M. J. Whittlesey, L. E. Armstrong et al., “Effect of hydration state on testosterone and cortisol responses to training-intensity exercise in collegiate runners,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 765–770, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  28. J. A. Kanaley, J. Y. Weltman, K. S. Pieper, A. Weltman, and M. L. Hartman, “Cortisol and growth hormone responses to exercise at different times of day,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 2881–2889, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  29. N. Petrovsky, P. McNair, and L. C. Harrison, “Diurnal rhythms of pro-inflammatory cytokines: regulation by plasma cortisol and therapeutic implications,” Cytokine, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 307–312, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  30. D. B. Dill and D. L. Costill, “Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red-cells in dehydration,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 247–248, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  31. J. G. Cannon, J. L. Nerad, D. D. Poutsiaka, and C. A. Dinarello, “Measuring circulating cytokines,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 1897–1902, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  32. S. E. Maxwell and H. D. Delaney, Designing Experiments and Analyzing Data: Model Comparison Perspective, Wadsworth, Belmont, Calif, USA, 1990.
  33. T. Ibfelt, E. W. Petersen, H. Bruunsgaard, M. Sandmand, and B. K. Pedersen, “Exercise-induced change in type 1 cytokine-producing CD8+ T cells is related to a decrease in memory T cells,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 645–648, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  34. G. I. Lancaster, S. L. Halson, Q. Khan et al., “Effects of acute exhaustive exercise and chronic exercise training on type 1 and type 2 T lymphocytes,” Exercise Immunology Review, vol. 10, pp. 91–106, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  35. G. I. Lancaster, Q. Khan, P. T. Drysdale et al., “Effect of prolonged exercise and carbohydrate ingestion on type 1 and type 2 T lymphocyte distribution and intracellular cytokine production in humans,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 565–571, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Steensberg, A. D. Toft, H. Bruunsgaard, M. Sandmand, J. Halkjær-Kristensen, and B. K. Pedersen, “Strenuous exercise decreases the percentage of type 1 T cells in the circulation,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 1708–1712, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. C. LaVoy, J. A. Bosch, T. W. Lowder, and R. J. Simpson, “Acute aerobic exercise in humans increases cytokine expression in CD27 but not CD27+ CD8+ T-cells,” Brain Behavior and Immunity, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 54–62, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. F. Zaldivar, J. Wang-Rodriguez, D. Nemet et al., “Constitutive pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and growth factor response to exercise in leukocytes,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 1134–1141, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Baum, M. Müller-Steinhardt, H. Liesen, and H. Kirchner, “Moderate and exhaustive endurance exercise influences the interferon-γ levels in whole-blood culture supernatants,” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 165–169, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. L. Starkie, J. Rolland, and M. A. Febbraio, “Effect of adrenergic blockade on lymphocyte cytokine production at rest and during exercise,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 281, no. 4, pp. C1233–C1240, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. Weinstock, D. König, R. Harnischmacher, J. Keul, A. Berg, and H. Northoff, “Effect of exhaustive exercise stress on the cytokine response,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 345–354, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. Lewicki, H. Tchorzewski, E. Majewska, Z. Nowak, and Z. Baj, “Effect of maximal physical exercise on T-lymphocyte subpopulations and on interleukin 1 (IL 1) and interleukin 2 (IL 2) production in vitro,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 114–117, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. P. H. Drenth, S. H. M. van Uum, M. van Deuren, G. J. Pesman, J. van der Ven-Jongekrijg, and J. W. M. van der Meer, “Endurance run increases circulating IL-6 and IL-1ra but downregulates ex vivo TNF-α and IL-1β production,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 1497–1503, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. Kveramo, J. O. Olsen, and B. Osterud, “Changes in blood cell response following strenuous physical exercise,” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 318–322, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. H. Smits, K. Grünberg, R. H. Derijk, P. J. Sterk, and P. S. Hiemstra, “Cytokine release and its modulation by dexamethasone in whole blood following exercise,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 463–468, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. L. Starkie, D. J. Angus, J. Rolland, M. Hargreaves, and M. A. Febbraio, “Effect of prolonged, submaximal exercise and carbohydrate ingestion on monocyte intracellular cytokine production in humans,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 528, no. 3, pp. 647–655, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. van der Poll, S. M. Coyle, K. Barbosa, C. C. Braxton, and S. F. Lowry, “Epinephrine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α and potentiates interleukin 10 production during human endotoxemia,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 713–719, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Gleeson, N. C. Bishop, and N. P. Walsh, Exercise Immunology. Textbook for Undergraduates, Routledge, London, UK, 2013.
  49. D. R. Lucey, M. Clerici, and G. M. Shearer, “Type 1, and Type 2 cytokine dysregulation in human infectious, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 532–562, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. R. Mosmann and R. L. Coffman, “TH1 and TH2 cells: different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different functional properties,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 7, pp. 145–173, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Pitkäranta, J. Nokso-Koivisto, V. Jäntti, A. Takala, T. Kilpi, and T. Hovi, “Lowered yields of virus-induced interferon production in leukocyte cultures and risk of recurrent respiratory infections in children,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 199–205, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Connors, N. A. Giese, A. B. Kulkarni, C.-Y. Firestone, H. C. Morse III, and B. R. Murphy, “Enhanced pulmonary histopathology induced by Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) challenge of formalin-inactivated RSV-immunized BALB/c mice is abrogated by depletion of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10,” Journal of Virology, vol. 68, no. 8, pp. 5321–5325, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Y.-W. Tang and B. S. Graham, “Anti-IL-4 treatment at immunization modulates cytokine expression, reduces illness, and increases cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in mice challenged with respiratory syncytial virus,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 1953–1958, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K. Ostrowski, T. Rohde, M. Zacho, S. Asp, and B. K. Pedersen, “Evidence that interleukin-6 is produced in human skeletal muscle during prolonged running,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 508, no. 3, pp. 949–953, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. Steensberg, G. van Hall, T. Osada, M. Sacchetti, B. Saltin, and B. K. Pedersen, “Production of interleukin-6 in contracting human skeletal muscles can account for the exercise-induced increase in plasma interleukin-6,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 529, no. 1, pp. 237–242, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. M. Haahr, B. K. Pedersen, A. Fomsgaard et al., “Effect of physical exercise on in vitro production of interleukin 1, interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin 2 and interferon-γ,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 223–227, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. Reddy, E. Eirikis, C. Davis, H. M. Davis, and U. Prabhakar, “Comparative analysis of lymphocyte activation marker expression and cytokine secretion profile in stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures: an in vitro model to monitor cellular immune function,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 293, no. 1-2, pp. 127–142, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. Cross, L. Asher, M. Seguin et al., “The importance of a lipopolysaccharide-initiated, cytokine-mediated host defense mechanism in mice against extraintestinally invasive Escherichia coli,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 676–686, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Kopf, H. Baumann, G. Freer et al., “Impaired immune and acute-phase responses in interleukin-6-deficient mice,” Nature, vol. 368, no. 6469, pp. 339–342, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Z. Xing, J. Gauldie, G. Cox et al., “IL-6 is an antiinflammatory cytokine required for controlling local or systemic acute inflammatory responses,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 311–320, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. K.-H. Ricken, T. Rieder, G. Hauck, and W. Kindermann, “Changes in lymphocyte subpopulations after prolonged exercise,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 132–135, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. P. N. Shek, B. H. Sabiston, A. Buguet, and M. W. Radomski, “Strenuous exercise and immunological changes: a multiple-time-point analysis of leukocyte subsets, CD4/CD8 ratio, immunoglobulin production and NK cell response,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 466–474, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. N. E. Street and T. R. Mosmann, “Functional diversity of T lymphocytes due to secretion of different cytokine patterns,” FASEB Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 171–177, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. N. Auphan, J. A. DiDonato, C. Rosette, A. Helmberg, and M. Karin, “Immunosuppression by glucocorticoids: inhibition of NF-κB activity through induction of IκB synthesis,” Science, vol. 270, no. 5234, pp. 286–290, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. F. Sorrells and R. M. Sapolsky, “An inflammatory review of glucocorticoid actions in the CNS,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 259–272, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. I. J. Elenkov and G. P. Chrousos, “Stress hormones, proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines, and autoimmunity,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 966, pp. 290–303, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. DeRijk, D. Michelson, B. Karp et al., “Exercise and circadian rhythm-induced variations in plasma cortisol differentially regulate interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) production in humans: high sensitivity of TNFα and resistance of IL-6,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 82, no. 7, pp. 2182–2191, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. N. C. Bishop, G. A. Scanlon, N. P. Walsh, L. J. McCallum, and G. J. Walker, “No effect of fluid intake on neutrophil responses to prolonged cycling,” Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 22, no. 11-12, pp. 1091–1098, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. B. Mitchell, J. P. Dugas, B. K. McFarlin, and M. J. Nelson, “Effect of exercise, heat stress, and hydration on immune cell number and function,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1941–1950, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. B. K. Pedersen and L. Hoffman-Goetz, “Exercise and the immune system: regulation, integration, and adaptation,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 1055–1081, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus