Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 593826, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/593826
Review Article

Primary Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder

Department of Urology, North Manchester General Hospital, Delaunays Road, Manchester, UK

Received 30 March 2014; Revised 25 April 2014; Accepted 26 April 2014; Published 2 July 2014

Academic Editor: Athanasios Papatsoris

Copyright © 2014 Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Primary clear cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (PCCUB) is rare. Literature review has revealed 47 cases of PCCUB which commonly affects women. The histogenesis of PCCUB is not certain and Müllerian origin and urotheilal origin have been postulated. The microscopic characteristics of PCCUB include cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, arranged in a solid, glandular, tubulocystic, or papillary pattern. The cells may be flat or cuboidal with abundant clear eosinophilic cytoplasm. Hobnailing may be evident. PCCUB, on immunohistochemistry, stain positively with pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, and CA 125. PCCUB may manifest with visible haematuria, lower urinary tract symptoms, and discharge. There is no consensus opinion regarding the best treatment option for PCCUBs and patient outcomes are not very clear. Surgery has been the adopted treatment of choice. Differential diagnoses of PCCUB include nephrogenic metaplasia, urothelial carcinoma with clear cell cytoplasm, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and metastatic clear cell carcinoma with the primary originating elsewhere. Conclusions. A thorough radiological imaging assessment is required in cases of PCCUB to exclude a primary tumour elsewhere. Urologists and oncologists should report cases of PCCUB they encounter and should enter them into a multicentric trial to ascertain the best management option.