Table 1: Comparison of knowledge in medical and nursing students on each question.

Slot number Questions (answers)Medical students Nursing students value

1Which of the following is the main route of transmission of potentially harmful germs between patients? (health care workers hands when not clean)74 (75.6 %)32 (76.2%)NS
2What is the most frequent source of germs responsible for health care associated infections? (germs already present on or within the patient)44 (41.5%)12 (26.6%)0.0025

Which of the following hand hygiene actions prevents transmission of germs to the patient?
3Before touching a patient (yes)90 (91.6%)45 (97.8%)NS
4Immediately after risk of body fluid exposure (yes)81 (82.4%)39 (84.3%)NS
5After exposure to immediate surroundings of a patient (no)26 (26.7%)13 (28.4%)NS
6Immediately before a clean/aseptic procedure (yes)79 (80.3%)40 (86.7%)NS

Which of the following hand hygiene actions prevents transmission of germs to the health care worker?
7After touching a patient (yes)92 (94.2%)46 (99.6%)0.02
8Immediately after a risk of body fluid exposure (yes)86 (87.8%)41 (90.2%)NS
9Immediately before a clean/aseptic procedure (no)48 (48.9%)28 (61.2%)0.05
10After exposure to the immediate surroundings of a patient (yes)70 (71.2%)35 (77.1%)NS

Which of the following statements on alcohol-based hand rub and hand washing with soap and water is true?
11Hand rubbing is more rapid for hand cleansing than hand washing (true)68 (69.6%)36 (78.9%)NS
12Hand rubbing causes skin dryness more than hand washing (false)30 (30.2%)10 (20.8%)NS
13Hand rubbing is more effective against germs than hand washing (false)45 (45.7%)16 (34.2%)0.01
14Hand washing and hand rubbing are recommended to be performed in sequence (false)45 (46.3%)11 (24.2%)NS
15What is the minimal time needed for alcohol-based hand rub to kill most germs on your hands? (20 seconds)38 (38.3%)13 (27.8%)NS

Which type of hand hygiene method is required in the following situations?
16Before palpation of the abdomen (rubbing)27 (27.3%)18 (38.8%)0.02
17Before giving an injection (rubbing)25 (25.2%)14 (31.4%)NS
18After emptying a bed pan (washing)67 (68.2%)34 (79.8%)0.02
19After removing examination gloves (rubbing/washing)64 (65.6%)36 (78.7%)NS
20After making a patient’s bed (rubbing)30 (30.9%)6 (12.6%)0.0005
21After visible exposure to blood (washing)46 (46.7%)27 (57.9%)0.03

Which of the following should be avoided, as associated with increased likelihood of colonization of hands with harmful germs?
22Wearing jewellery (yes)76 (77.7%)44 (96.6%)0.0001
23Damaged skin (yes)93 (95.3%)43 (93.9%)NS
24Artificial fingernails (yes)79 (80.9%)41 (90.1%)0.04
25Regular use of a hand cream (no)54 (54.8%)31 (67.4%)NS

test. (significant), (highly significant), and NS (not significant).